Validation of Cameron and Quinn's Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) in Polish Conditions
Aim: The main aim of the paper is validation of the OCAI questionnaire with the study providing the framework for estimating psychometric parameters (accuracy, reliability, discriminatory power) and devising standards which will allow for a correct and clear interpretation of scores, thus forming the basis for assessment of the possibilities of using the OCAI in Polish conditions. Research method: In the validation work, the Polish version of Cameron and Quinn's OCAI questionnaire was used. While selecting the validation sample, a targeted strategy was adopted, whereas in relation to the standardized sample it was partially targeted and incidental. The validity test was performed based on factor analysis and examining correlative relationships between the OCAI scales and the constructs which were to some extent related conceptually. Reliability was estimated using Cronbach's Alpha. Discriminatory power of the items of scales was calculated by correlating the items with the overall scale scores and by comparing variances of extreme quartile groups. The possibility of standardization was estimated through the K-S test. Findings: The validation study confirmed the conceptual correctness of the construct of Cameron and Quinn's Competing Values Framework. The structure of the OCAI questionnaire produced on the basis of the Polish research sample is consistent with the assumptions of its creators. The questionnaire has appropriate psychometric properties in terms of accuracy, reliability and discriminatory power. The distributions of the OCAI scale scores do not deviate significantly from the character of the normal distribution, and, depending on the potential user's preferences, it is possible to apply percentile standards or standard tens. Originality / value of the paper: The tests presented in the paper confirm methodological and conceptual validity of the OCAI tool which is among those tools which are quite frequently used in research on organizational culture. The potential user of this questionnaire can carry out research in the knowledge that the questionnaire has adequate psychometric properties and that it was verified in Polish conditions. The system of standards that was generated makes the scores largely more precise so one can indicate their exact level against a selected population of persons employed in Polish organizations, which in turn produces favorable conditions for drawing correct conclusions as to the relevant recommendations, including their correct formulation. It is also possible to compare the score scales with those produced by other tools with the same system of standards. Implications of the research: The psychometric verification of the OCAI questionnaire produces a range of possibilities for the research centered on the issues surrounding organizational culture because the research draws on the knowledge that it can be conducted employing a tool that was tested and proved useful also in Polish conditions. Members of the contemporary research community want increasingly more often to carry out studies using tools that have been objectively and quantitatively justified. In the long run, the OCAI can be employed to identify causal relationships between the phenomena of organizational culture and the factors that are interdependent with this culture, such as management styles or motivational psychological aspects. Limitations of the research: Although the validation study was conducted with differentiated samples, they did not fulfill the requirement of full representativeness for the entire Polish population, which means that the conclusions drawn by a potential user of the validated version of the OCAI should be marked by a cautious and balanced approach. The validation works on the questionnaire are still preliminary and they will require to be confirmed by further research. The percentile and ten standards generated are temporary and general in their nature. Moreover, the significance of differences has not been explored between the individual subgroups of the research sample and in the future what will be necessary is a statistical verification in the context of creating separate standards depending on such variables as type of work, level or industry within which organization functions. (original abstract)
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