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2005 | nr 1071, t. 2 Polska w rozszerzonej Unii Europejskiej - uwarunkowania i perspektywy rozwoju. T. 2 | 115--127
Tytuł artykułu

Rolnictwo Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej w okresie transformacji ustrojowej gospodarki

Warianty tytułu
Agriculture of Middle Eastern Europe During a Period of Economic Transformation
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
Artykuł przedstawia przebieg transformacji sektora rolnego oraz jego stan na początku wieku. Wśród państw Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej pojawili się liderzy procesu przekształceń, kraje, w których restrukturyzacja przebiega wolniej oraz państwa, w których obserwuje się regres rolnictwa. (fragment tekstu)
EN
Privatization in rural Middle Eastern Europe is an important factor in the general political and economic transition in this part of Europe. Agriculture was always a significant component in development strategies of the former socialist countries. After the fall of the communist system it became an important factor in the struggle for political influence.
Models in transformation in agriculture were different in countries situated in the region. These dissimilarities were the result of the socio-economic and political situation in which these particular countries were found at the time. After World War II agriculture in Middle and East European countries was created by economic policy dependent on the Soviet Union. As a result until the beginning of 1990 in their national economies dominated public property of means of production.
Key issues of agricultural transformation in Middle Eastern Europe are: privatisation of land and assets; satisfaction a request of former farmers and their heirs whose land had been collectivised; restructuring of large-scale farms; implementation of market economy; development of individual farming (peasant farms); increase of efficiency of agriculture.
Restructuring is both a political, economic and social process. Restructuring is political in that land privatization and farm restructuring are highly dependent on local politics, and continued debates about the strategy and the implementation of the reforms. It is economic, in that restructuring must ensure the optimal organisation of farm.
The process of transformation in agriculture in Middle Eastern Europe was imposed by historic necessity resulting from the failure of communist ideology. It can already be confirmed that the heritage of the communist period left behind it. It is visible as the attachment to collective property, the lack of individual initiative connected with mental barriers, the power of informal connections and pro-socialist feelings among a large proportion of the rural population.
The period of a centrally planned economy caused common consequences in mentioned countries. There are among other things mental problems and spatial structure of plots. Workers from different kinds of state farms were not interested in establishing their private farms. They were used to working eight hours per day as workers in factories do and a typical link between farmer and soil was snap. Another remains in geographical space where big plots of fields typical for state farms. (original abstract)
Twórcy
  • Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Bibliografia
  • Agricultural Privatization, Land Reform and Farm Restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe, 1997, N. Swinnen, A. Buckwell, E. Mathijs (red.), Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot.
  • Csaki C., Lerman Z., 1996, Agricultural Transition Revisited: Issues of Land Reform and Farm Restructuring in East Central Europe and the Former USRR, "Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture", vol. 35, s. 211-240, Frankfurt (Main).
  • Grykień S., 2000, Przekształcenia struktury agrarnej wschodnich Niemiec, "Czasopismo Geograficzne", t. 71, z. 1, Wrocław, s. 23-42.
  • Grykień S., 2001, Transformation in Agriculture in new Lander in Germany, Poland and Ukraine, [w:] The Soviet Legacy in the ECEC and in the CIS, Paris - Sorbonę (referat).
  • Halamska M., 1998, Dekolektywizacja rolnictwa w Europie Środkowej i jej społeczne konsekwencje, IRWiR PAN, Warszawa.
  • Koester U., 1996, The Legacy of Dualism in Agriculture of the FSU Countries as an Impediment to Transformation, "Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture", vol. 35, s. 207-210, Frankfurt (Main).
  • Kostrubiec B., Łoboda J., 1997, Przemiany społeczno-gospodarcze i przestrzenne w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej w latach dziewięćdziesiątych, "Acta Univ. Wratis." nr 1909, Stud. Geogr. nr LXVI1, Wyd. Uniw. Wroc., Wrocław.
  • Leonard C. S., 2000, Rational Resistance to Land Privatization: The Response of Rural Producers to Agrarian Reforms in Pre- and Post-Soviet Russia, Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, vol. 41, nr 8, s. 605-620.
  • Stanfield D., Overchuk A., 2002, Notes on Agricultural Land in Russia, [w:] Country Studies: Real Estate Privatization in Selected Eastern European and Eurasian Countries, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
  • Turnock D., (red.), 1998, Privatization in Rural Eastern Europe. The process of Restitution and Restructuring, Studies of Communism in Transition, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, Northampton, MA, USA.
  • World Economic and Social Survey 1999. Trends and Policies in the World Economy, United Nations, New York, 1999.
  • Zgliński W., 2000, Dekolektywizacja rolnictwa i jej skutki w postkomunistycznych krajach Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej, [w:] Europa XXI, nr 5, s. 27-40, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa.
  • FAOSTAT database, 2003.
  • Lerman Z., Csaki C., Feder G., 2001, Land Policy and Changing Farm Structures in Central Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union, www.agri.huji.ac.il/~lermanzv/book.html.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
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