The Triple Helix Model for Regional Development and Innovation : Context of Nordic Countries
Nordic countries and their capital regions are among the leaders in Europe in terms of innovation development. This paper summarizes the experience of regional innovation in the capitals of Nordic countries (i.e., Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland). Two research questions were explored in this study: What is the difference in innovation policy of Oslo region and innovation policies in capital regions of three other Nordic capitals? Does the regional innovation policy influence on the innovation effectiveness? I have applied benchmarking analysis to explore and compare the innovation policies in the capitals of Nordic countries and to explore the pros and cons of regional innovation policies and cooperation links among key players contributing to innovation development. The findins of this research show that the Triple Helix model implemented in the Scandinavian capitals is an effective model of innovation leading the regions to innovation champions. Notably, the Triple Helix model was implemented early in Stockholm, Helsinki and Copenhagen. This allowed these regions to become "Innovation leaders" and "Innovation leaders +" according to the European Regional Scoreboard. The Triple Helix model was implemented later in Oslo. The adoption of the Triple Helix in this region allowed Oslo to improve its innovation status and become recently an "Innovation leader". (original abstract)
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