International Road Transport in the Outsourcing Aspect on the Example of Poland
Outsourcing in the transport industry as a tool for managing a company is one of the ways to reduce costs. Although outsourcing has long been a well-known management tool, the transportation industry uses outsourcing to a small extent. This is due to the industry specificity and very large numbers of micro or large logistics operators. In extensive research on the use of outsourcing in the international road transport industry, the author has established the determinants of shortfalls, which can be met by the benefits of outsourcing. The quantitative research was conducted on a group of 384 respondents from the target group in Poland in the period from 2013 to 2015. The article explores the general use of outsourcing in the transport industry, identification of shortcomings in these companies and the analysis of how outsourcing is used and which barriers are encountered by the carriers, competing on the international market. The purpose of the research was to look for costly processes, such as debt recovery, workshop services, driver working time billing and legal aspects. Determining the shortfalls is to indicate whether it is possible to reduce the costs that occur in the transport company and to benefit by transferring some of the competencies to other entities. Analysing the problem of outsourcing, which is a well-known management tool in enterprises, it was noticed that in the transport industry the topic of outsourcing is not popular and in practice few enterprises use such tools. That is why the author asked problem questions that were to contribute to identifying the causes of deficiencies in the transport industry and the possibility of their implementation through outsourcing. The main research problem was to identify areas that can be separated in the transport industry and transferred to another entity for implementation. Among the numerous activities, the most important deficiencies were pointed out. Another problem question was whether outsourcing as the management tool could be used for the distinguished groups of processes. The last key research question was to indicate for which group of companies or size of enterprises outsourcing could be applicable as a management too.(original abstract)
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