Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2018 | 11 | nr 4 | 312--325
Tytuł artykułu

The Effect of Product Colour and Odour on Consumers' Perceived Preference and Intensity Ratings

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Due to high competitiveness, product innovation requirements and customer demand, the importance of the field of sensory marketing has increased. The term refers to the characteristics of products, things or even services that might impact our further sensory input and trigger human senses. This study presents the results of an experiment designed to test the effect of 16 colour and scent combinations (representing visual and olfactory modalities) on perceived preference and intensity. The research aims to investigate whether the same scent can be rated differently in variously coloured packaging and therefore affect consumers' perception and evaluations. A total of 301 students have taken a part in this experiment. The colours used in this experiment were green, yellow, orange and purple. The scents were selected to correspond to the widely commercially used odour/ colour combinations in the FMCG sector in the Czech Republic. The results suggest that colour played a significant role in consumers' preference ratings when evaluating the same scent and therefore colour has the ability to affect the perception of odour. However, colour did not have any effect on perceived intensity ratings. Linear regression analysis suggests that semantic associations as used in FMCG sector for colour-odour congruency does not fit the data and hence, the model for prediction of preference ratings is probably far more complicated. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • University of Economics Prague, Czech Republic
  • University of Economics Prague, Czech Republic
  • University of Economics Prague, Czech Republic
  • Babin, B.J., Darden W.R. & Griffin, M. (1994). Work and/or Fun: Measuring Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (4), 644-656.
  • Bitner, J.M. (1992). Servicescapes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees. Journal of Marketing, 56, 57-71.
  • Bone P.F. & Scholder, E.P. (1999). Scents in the Marketplace: Explaining a Fraction of Olfaction. Journal of Retailing, 75 (2), 243-62.
  • Bosmans A. (2006). Scents and Sensibility: When Do (In)Congruent Ambient Scents Influence Product Evaluations?. Journal of Marketing, 70 (3), 32-43.
  • Burghardt, G. M. (1977). The ontogeny, evolution, and stimulus control of feeding in humans and reptiles. In M. R. Kare & O. Mailer (Eds.). The chemical senses and nutrition (pp. 253-275). New York: Academic Press.
  • Carpenter, C., Cornforth, D. & Whittier, D. (2001). Consumer preference for beef color and packaging affect eating satisfaction. Meat Science, 57, 359-363.
  • Carulli, M., Bordegoni, M. & Cugini, U. (2016). Integrating Scents Simulation in Virtual Reality Multisensory Environment for Industrial Products Evaluation. Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 13(3), 320-328. doi: 10.1080/16864360.2015.1114390
  • Chu, S. & Downes, J.J. (2002). Proust nose best: Odours are better cues of autobiographical memory. Memory and Cognition, 30 (4), 511-518.
  • Crowder, R. G., & Schab, F. R. (1995). Imagery for odors. In R. G. Crowder & F. R. Schab (Eds.). Memory for odors (93-107). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Davis, R. G. (1981). The role of nonolfactory context cues in odor identification. Perception & Psychophysics, 30, 83-89.
  • de Wijk R.A., Schab F.R. & Cain W.S. (1995). Odor identification. In: Schab F.R., Crowder R.G., editors. Memory for odors. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers; 21-37.
  • Ebbinghaus, H. (1913). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology.
  • Ehrlichman, H., & Bastone, L. (1992). Olfaction and emotion. In M.J. Serby & K. L. Chobor (Eds.), Science of olfaction, 410-438. New York: Springer- Verlag.
  • Engen, T. (1972). The effect of expectation on judgments of odor. Acta Psycho- logica, 36, 450-458.
  • Engen T. & Ross B.M. (1973). Long-term memory of odors with and without verbal descriptions. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 100(2), 221-227.
  • Fox, C. W. (1935). An experimental study of naming. The American Journal of Psychology, 47, 545-579.
  • Gatti, E., Bordegoni, M. & Spence, Ch. (2014). Investigating the influence of color, weight, and fragrance intensity on the perception of liquid bath soap: An experimental study. Food Quality and Preference, 31, 56-64.
  • Gilbert, A. N., Martin, R. & Kemp, S. E. (1996). Cross-modal correspondence between vision and olfaction: The color of smells. The American Journal of Psychology, 109, 335-351.
  • Gobé, M. (2001). Emotional branding: The new paradigm for connecting brands to people: Allworth Press.
  • Gormley, T. (1992). A Note on Consumer Preference of Smoked Salmon Colour. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 31 (2), 199-202.
  • Gorn, G., Pham, M.T. & Sin, L.Y. (2001). When arousal influences ad evaluation and valence does not (and vice versa). Journal of Consumer Psychology, 11, 43-55.
  • Gulas, C.S. & Bloch, P.H. (1995). Journal of Business Psychology, 10, 87.
  • Herz, R.S. (2007) The scent of desire: Discovering our enigmatic sense of smell. New York: William Morrow/HarperCollins.
  • Hirsch, A. (1995). Effects of Ambient Odours on Slot-Machine Usage in a Las Vegas Casino, Psychology and Marketing, 12 (7), 585-594.
  • Holbrook, M.B. (1999). Consumer value: A framework for analysis and research. Routledge.
  • Hultén B. (2009). Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept, European Business Review, 23 (3), 256-273.
  • Ishihara, S. (1917). Tests for colour blindness (1st edt). Tokyo, Kanehra Shuppan.
  • Jespersen, O. (1922). The symbolic value of the vowel i. Philologica, 1, 1-19.
  • Knasko, S. (1989). Ambient odour and shopping behaviour. Chemical Senses, 14 (5), 179.
  • Köhler, W. (1929). Gestalt psychology. New York: Liveright.
  • Krishna, A., Lwin M.O. & Morrin, M.(2010). Product Scent and Memory, Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (1), 57-67.
  • Krishna, A. (2012). An integrative review of sensory marketing: Engaging the senses to affect perception, judgment and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(3), 332-351.
  • Laird D.A. (1932). How the Consumer Estimates Quality by Subconscious Sensory Impressions: With Special Reference to the Role of Smell, Journal of Applied Psychology, 16 (3), 241-46.
  • Lawless, H., & Engen, T. (1977). Associations to odors: Interference, mnemonics, and verbal labeling. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 3(1), 52-59.
  • Léon, F., Couronne, T., Marcuz, M.C & Köster, E. (1999). Measuring food liking in children: A comparison of non- verbal methods. Food Quality and Preference, 10, 93-100.
  • Marks, L. E. (1978). The unity of the senses: Interrelations among the modalities. New York: Academic Press.
  • Marshall, D., Stuart, M. & Bell, R. (2006). Examining the relationship between product package colour and product selection in pre-schoolers, Food Quality and Preference, 17 (7-8), 615-21.
  • McGurk, H., & Macdonald, J. (1976). Hearing lips and seeing voices. Nature, 264, 746-748.
  • Morrin, M. (2010). Scent marketing: An overview. In A. Krishna (Ed.), Sensory marketing: Research on the sensuality of products, pp. 75-86. New York: Routledge, Psychology Press.
  • Nelson, K. (2014). This App Can Send Scented Text Messages. Retrieved from:
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.