Selected air pollutants in urban and rural areas, under the influence of power plants
The operation of large power plants, including power stations, and combined heat and power stations, causes the emission of significant amounts of gaseous pollutants into the environment. As a result, in the urban and agricultural areas occurs a pollution of undesirable gaseous substances, such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides. This is especially dangerous for living organisms, soil and water, because, in combination with water vapor, these pollutants are the cause of acid rain. In addition, nitrogen oxides participate in the formation of ground-level ozone, which affects both human health and the condition of existing vegetation. Therefore, the distribution of air pollutants (NO2, SO2 and O3) in the selected urban and rural areas, under the influence of power plants, located in the Lodz Voivodeship, in Poland, in Central-Eastern Europe, was analyzed for a 10-year period (2007-2016). As a result, it was possible to evaluate the impact of the entry into force of Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 "on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe" on the changes in emissions and concentrations of pollutants in selected locations. As a result of the analysis, a significant decrease in the concentration of SO2 (by 75% in the urban area and by 59% in the rural area), and small changes (from - 8% to + 12%) in NO2 and O3 concentrations in ambient air were found. This indicates the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing SO2 emissions, however the influence of the power plants on the concentration of air pollutants in these areas is not clear. At the same time, considering the criterion of permissible concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, although the air quality did not improve, the air quality index can be considered as being in the category of "good".(original abstract)
- M. L. Williams, 6 - Patterns of Air Pollution in Developed Countries," Air Pollution and Health" (1999) 83-104 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012352335-8/50081-8
- WHO, 2000. Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, WHO Regional Publications, "European Series", No. 91, Copenhagen, 2000
- R. Cichowicz, G. Wielgosiński, W. Fetter, Dispersion of atmospheric air pollution in summer and winter season," Environmental Monitoring and Assessment", (2017) 189-605 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017- 6319-2
- WHO, 2013. Review of Evidence on Health Aspects of Air Pollution - REVIHAAP Project. Technical Report, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2000.
- U. Ackermann-Liebrich, R. Rapp, 25 - Epidemiological Effects of Oxides of Nitrogen, Especially NO2, "Air Pollution and Health" (1999) 561-584, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012352335-8/50100-9
- R. B. Schlesinger, 26-Toxicology of Sulfur Oxides, Air Pollution and Health 1999, Pages 585-602, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012352335-8/50101-0
- S. Sudalma,P. Purwantoa,L. W. Santosod, The Effect of SO2 and NO2 from Transportation and Stationary Emissions Sources to SO42- and NO3- in Rain Water in Semarang, "Procedia Environmental Sciences "Volume (23) (2015) 247-252 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.01.037
- R. Mmuzika, R. Pguyette, T. Zielonka, A. Mliebhold, The influence of O3, NO2 and SO2 on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains, "Environmental Pollution" 130 (1) (2004) 65-71 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2003.10.021
- G. D. Thurston, K. Ito, 22 - Epidemiological Studies of Ozone Exposure Effects," Air Pollution and Health "(1999) 485-510 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012352335-8/50097-1
- Environmental Protection Inspection, National Mosaic Report. State of the Environment in the years 20002007 (Inspekcja Ochrony Środowiska, Krajowy Raport Mozaikowy. Stan Środowiska w latach 200-2007), Library of Environmental Monitoring, Warsaw 2010 http://www.gios.gov.pl/stansrodowiska/upload/file/pdf/download/krajowy_raport_mozaik_n.pdf
- K.N. Priftis, M. B. Anthracopoulos, A. G. Paliatsos, G. Tzavelas, A. Nikolaou-Papanagiotou, P. Douridas, P.Nicolaidou, E. Mantzouranis, Different effects of urban and rural environments in the respiratory status of Greek schoolchildren, "Respiratory Medicine" 101 (1) (2007) 98-106 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2006.04.008
- H. Strosnider, C. Kennedy, M. Monti, F. Yip, Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 - United States," Surveillance Summaries" 66 (13) (2017) 1-10 http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6613a1
- S. Gulia, S.M. S. Nagendra, M. Khare, I. Khanna, Urban air quality management-A review," Atmospheric Pollution Research" 6 (2) (2015) 286-304 https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2015.033
- G. Wielgosiński, J. Czerwińska, O. Namiecińska, R. Cichowicz, Smog episodes in the Lodz agglomeration in the years 2014-17, E3S Web of Conferences 28 (01039) (2018) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20182801039
- C. Holman, 8 - Sources of Air Pollution, Air Pollution and Health (1999) 115-148 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012352335-8/50083-1
- D. M. Whitacre, Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013
- R. Cichowicz, G. Wielgosiński, W. Fetter, Impact of pollutants emitted by large industrial plants on the quality of atmospheric air, "Polish Journal of Environmental Studies "26 (5A) (2017) 8-13
- R. Cichowicz, Spatial distribution of pollutants in the area of the former CHP plant, E3S Web of Conferences 28 (01007) 2018 https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20182801007.
- EU, 2008. Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe, OJ L 152, 11.6.2008, pp. 1-44.
- EU, 2010. Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) OJ L 334, 17.12.2010, p. 17-119
- PL, 2001. The Act Of 27 April 2001, The Environmental Protection Law (Ustawa z dnia 27 kwietnia 2001 r. Prawo ochrony środowiska), Dz.U. 2001 nr 62 poz. 627
- PL, 2012. Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of 11 September 2012 on air protection programs and short-term action plans (Rozporządzenie Ministra Środowiska z dnia 11 września 2012 r. w sprawie programów ochrony powietrza oraz planów działań krótkoterminowych), Dz.U. 2012 poz. 1028.
- http://www.wios.lodz.pl/Roczne oceny_jakosci_powietrza,141
- WHO, 2006. Air Quality Guidelines. Global Update 2005. Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen dioxide and Sulfur dioxide. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2005.
- PL, 2012. Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of 24 August 2012 on the levels of certain substances in the air (Rozporządzenie Ministra Środowiska z dnia 24 sierpnia 2012 r. w sprawie poziomów niektórych substancji w powietrzu), Dz.U. 2012 poz. 1031
- R. C. Wilson, Z. L. Fleming, P. S. Monks, G. Clain, S. Henne, I. B. Konovalov, S. Szopa, L. Menut, Have primary emission reduction measures reduced ozone across Europe? An analysis of European rural background ozone trends 1996-2005, "Atmos. Chem. Phys." 12 (2012) 437-454 http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-437-2012
- C. B.B. Guerreiro, V. Foltescu, F. de Leeuw, Air quality status and trends in Europe, "Atmospheric Environment "98 (2014) 376-384 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.017
- H. Shen, Y. Chena, A. G. Russell, Y. Hu, G. Shen, H. Yu, L. R.F. Henneman, M. Rua, Ye Huang, Q. Zhong, Y. Chen, Y. Li, Y. Zou, Impacts of rural worker migration on ambient air quality and health in China: From the perspective of upgrading residential energy consumption, Environment International (2018) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.11.033
- S.P. Bhoyar, S. Dusad, R. Shrivastava, S. Sidharth Mishra, N. Gupta, A. B. Rao, Understanding the impact of lifestyle on individual carbonfootprint, "Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences "133 ( 2014) 47 - 60 https://doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.168