Spatial Inequality in Jordan
Aim/purpose - The aim of this study is to examine the spatial inequality in Jordan, amongst Jordan's rural and urban governorates (Muhafazat). Design/methodology/approach - This study describes and portrays comparisons between investigated administrative units in search of finding the governorates' economic inequality. It is based on the official raw data of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) which were created by Jordan's Department of Statistics (DoS) in 2013- 2014. It uses four indicators covering water, sewage, labour market and finance to present inequalities between rural and urban areas. In addition, it uses another four measures covering income and expenditure of the households and their members to find inequality among governorates. Findings - The results indicate that although there is generally a significant inequality between rural and urban areas in Jordan, there is much more substantial inequality among governorates; people in Amman are the richest and those in Tafiela, Mafraq, and Ma'an are the poorest. Research implications/limitations - Some development programs should be carried out to reduce the existing inequality to lead to the improvement of life quality of the rural areas and to support their infrastructure, as well as to provide economic opportunities. Economic decentralisation should be considered seriously, and the development programs for the governorates should be redefined. Originality/value/contribution - This is the first investigation into spatial differences in intergenerational mobility in Jordan and provides critical evidence in spatial inequality of economic outcomes and infrastructure available for Jordan.(original abstract)
- Adams, R. H. (2001). Nonfarm income, inequality and poverty in rural Egypt and Jordan (Policy Research Working Paper No. 2572). Washington, DC: World Bank. doi: 10.1596/1813-9450-2572
- Al Rabady, R., Rababeh, S., & Abu-Khafajah, S. (2014). Urban heritage governance within the context of emerging decentralization discourses in Jordan. Habitat International, 42, 253-263. doi: 10.1016/J.HABITATINT.2014.01.002
- Alesina, A. & Perotti, R. (1996, June). Income distribution, political instability, and investment. European Economic Review, 40(6), 1203-1228. doi: 10.1016/0014- 2921(95)00030-5
- Alvaredo, F., & Gasparini, L. (2015). Chapter 9 - Recent trends in inequality and poverty in developing countries. In A. B. Atkinson & F. Bourguignon (Eds.), Handbook of income distribution (vol. 2, pp. 697-805). Amsterdam-Boston-Heidelberg: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59428-0.00010-2
- Alvaredo, F., & Piketty, T. (2014). Measuring top incomes and inequality in the Middle East: Data limitations and illustration with the case of Egypt (CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP10068). Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm? abstract_id=2501542
- Assaf, A. A. (2016). Income inequality and its impact on economic growth: Evidence from Jordan. European Journal of Business and Management, 8(6), 95-102.
- Barro, R. J. (2000). Inequality and growth in a panel of countries. Journal of Economic Growth, 5(1), 5-32. doi: 10.1023/A:1009850119329
- Bjørnskov, C. (2010). Do elites benefit from democracy and foreign aid in developing countries? Journal of Development Economics, 92(2), 115-124. doi: 10.1016/ J.JDEVECO.2009.03.001
- Calderón, C., & Servén, L. (2004). The effects of infrastructure development on growth and income distribution (Working Papers Central Bank of Chile No. 270). Santiago: Central Bank of Chile.
- Department of Statistics [DoS]. (2015). Household expenditures and income survey 2013- 2014. Retrieved from http://dosweb.dos.gov.jo/products/household-income2013-2014/
- Department of Statistics [DoS]. (2017). Jordan population. Retrieved May 11, 2019, from http://dosweb.dos.gov.jo/ar/population/population-2/
- Deyshappriya, N. P. R. (2017, March). Impact of macroeconomic factors on income inequality and income distribution in Asian countries (ADBI Working Paper Series No. 696). Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute.
- Diwan, I. (2013). Understanding revolution in the Middle East: The central role of the middle class. Middle East Development Journal, 5(1). Retrieved from https:// scholar.harvard.edu/idiwan/publications/understanding-revolution-middle-eastcentral- role-middle-class
- Herzer, D., & Nunnenkamp, P. (2012). The effect of foreign aid on income inequality: Evidence from panel cointegration. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 23(3), 245-255. doi: 10.1016/J.STRUECO.2012.04.002
- Kallioras, D., & Petrakos, G. (2010). Industrial growth, economic integration and structural change: Evidence from the EU new member-states regions. The Annals of Regional Science, 45(3), 667-680. doi: 10.1007/s00168-009-0296-5
- Kharabsheh, A. (2001). Factors affecting inequality of income distribution in Jordan. Dirasat: Administrative Science, 28, 365-380.
- Krafft, C., Assaad, R., Nazier, H., Ramadan, R., Vahidmanesh, A., & Zouari, S. (2017). Estimating poverty and inequality in the absence of consumption data: An application to the Middle East and North Africa (Working Paper No. 1100). Giza: Economic Research Forum.
- Nielsen, F., & Alderson, A. S. (1995, October). Income inequality, development, and dualism: Results from an unbalanced cross-national panel. American Sociological Review, 60(5), 674-701. doi: 10.2307/2096317
- Persson, T., & Tabellini, G. (1994). Is inequality harmful for growth? The American Economic Review, 84(3), 600-621.
- Potter, R. B., Darmame, K., Barham, N., & Nortcliff, S. (2009, January). "Ever-growing Amman", Jordan: Urban expansion, social polarisation and contemporary urban planning issues. Habitat International, 33(1), 81-92. doi: 10.1016/j.habitatint. 2008.05.005
- Shaban, R., Abu-Ghaida, D., & Al-Naimat, A.-S. (2002). Poverty alleviation in Jordan: Lessons for the future (Orientations in Development Series No. 22560). Washington, DC: World Bank.
- Shahateet, M. I. (2006). How serious regional economic inequality in Jordan? Evidence from two national household surveys. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 3(2), 1735-1744. doi: 10.3844/ajassp.2006.1735.1744
- Shahateet, M. I., & Al-Tayyeb, S. M. (2010). Regional consumption inequalities in Jordan: Empirical study. Dirasat: Administrative Sciences, 34(1), 200-209. Retrieved from https://journals.ju.edu.jo/DirasatAdm/article/view/413
- UNDP-UNICEF. (2015). Socio-economic inequality in Jordan (Development Program in Jordan). New York: Author.
- Zhuang, J., Kanbur, R., & Rhee, C. (2014, February). Rising inequality in Asia and policy implications (ADBI Working Paper Series No. 463). Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute.