Construction of Solidarity: Czech and Polish Approach to Refugees in the EU Context
The article deals with the concept of solidarity in the context of the current refugee crisis. Specifically, employing the Discourse-Historical Approach, it explores how solidarity is constructed in the discourse of the EU and in two member states, in Poland and in the Czech Republic which have been very critical of the European approach to refugees from the beginning of the refugee crisis in 2015. As the findings suggest, relocations seem to be the only contested aspect of a more complex solution. On all other initiatives, there is an agreement between the EU and Poland and the Czech Republic even though the discourse might seem escalated at first sight. Moreover, drawing on the theoretical overview, the balancing of solidarity as a value with national interests and focus on security seems to be in line with the theoretical conceptualisation of international solidarity.(original abstract)
- Apap J., Carrera S., Maintaining Security within Borders: Towards a Permanent State of Emergency in the EU?, "CEPS Policy Briefs", no. 4/2003.
- Campesi G., The Arab Spring and the Crisis of the European Border Regime: Manufacturing Emergency in the Lampedusa Crisis, "EUI RSCAS Working Papers", no. 59/2011.
- Carrera S. et al., A Race against Solidarity. The Schengen Regime and the Franco-Italian Affair, "CEPS", vol. April/2011.
- Coicaud J.-M., Wheeler N.J., National Interest and International Solidarity: Particular and Universal Ethics in International Life, United Nations University Press, Tokyo JPN 2008.
- Cornelisse G., What's Wrong with Schengen? Border Disputes and the Nature of Integration in the Area Without Internal Borders, "Common Market Law Review", vol. 51/2014, pp. 741-770.
- Crow G., Social solidarities. Theories, identities, and social change, Open University Press, Filadelfie 2002.
- De Beer P., Koster F., Sticking Together or Falling Apart? Solidarity in an Era of Individualization and Globalization, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2009, https://doi.org/10.5117/9789089641281.
- Dussel E., From Fraternity to Solidarity: Toward a Politics of Liberation, "Journal of Social Philosophy", vol. 38:1/2007, pp. 73-92.
- Gibbs G., Analyzing Qualitative Data, SAGE, Los Angeles 2018.
- Gould C., Transnational Solidarities, "Journal of Social Philosophy", no. 38:1/2007, pp. 148-164.
- Harvey J., Moral Solidarity and Empathetic Understanding: The Moral Value and Scope of the Relationship, "Journal of Social Philosophy", no. 38:1/2007, pp. 22-37.
- Hooker J., Race and the politics of solidarity, Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York 2009, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/97801953353 61.001.0001.
- Chong D., Rogers R., Racial Solidarity and Political Participation, "Political Behavior", no. 27:4/2005, pp. 347-374.
- Klaus W., Security First: New Right-Wing Government in Poland and its Policy Towards Immigrants and Refugees, "Surveillance & Society", vol. 15(3/4), pp. 523-528, https://doi.org/10.24908/ss.v15i3/4.6627.
- Krieg A., Motivations for Humanitarian Intervention: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations, Springer, Heidelberg 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/978- 94-007-5374-7.
- Krzyżanowski M., 'Crisis' and Migration in Poland: Discursive Shifts, Anti- Pluralism and the Politicisation of Exclusion, "Sociology", vol. 52(3)/2018, pp. 612-618.
- Krzyżanowski M., International leadership re-constructed? Ambivalence and heterogeneity of identity discourses in European Union's policy on climate change, "Journal of Language and Politics", vol. 14:1.
- May L., The International Community, Solidarity and the Duty to Aid, "Journal of Social Philosophy", vol. 38:1/2007, pp. 185-203.
- Narkowicz K., Refugees Not Welcome Here': State, Church and Civil Society Responses to the Refugee Crisis in Poland, "International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society" 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10767- 018-9287-9.
- Pacek M., European Europe - The Migration Crisis of European Integration, "Yearbook of Polish Eeuropean Studies" 2016, vol. 19/2016, pp. 83- 100.
- Pensky M., The ends of solidarity: discourse theory in ethics and politics, State University of New York Press, Albany 2008.
- Rehg W., Solidarity and the Common Good: An Analytic Framework, "Journal of Social Philosophy", vol. 38:1, 2007, pp. 7-21, https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1467-9833.2007.00363.x.
- Reisigl M., Argumentation Analysis and the Discourse-Historical Approach. A Methodological Framework, in: Contemporary Critical Discourse Studies, eds. C. Hart, P. Cap, Bloomsbury London 2014.
- Rippe K.P., Diminishing Solidarity, "Ethical Theory and Moral Practice", no. 1/1998, pp. 355-374.
- Shelby T., We who are dark: the philosophical foundations of Black solidarity, Belknap Press, Cambridge MA 2012.
- Scholz S., Political Solidarity and Violent Resistance, "Journal of Social Philosophy", no. 38:1/2007, pp. 38-52.
- Tulmets E., Identities and Solidarity in Foreign Policy: East Central Europe and the Eastern Neighbourhood, Institute of International Relations, Prague 2012.
- Wilde L., The Concept of Solidarity: Emerging from the Theoretical Shadows?, "BJPIR", no. 9/2007, pp. 171-181.
- Wodak R., Krzyżanowski M., Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke; New York 2008, https:// doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-04798-4.