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2018 | nr 4 | 45--75
Tytuł artykułu

Nord Stream 2: Between Monopoly and Diversification

Autorzy
Warianty tytułu
Nord Stream 2 - między monopolem a dywersyfikacją
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
Nord Stream 2 (NS2) jest jednym z najbardziej spornych projektów rurociągów w historii Europy. Kontrowersje dotyczą przede wszystkim tego, czy NS2 sprzyja, czy raczej szkodzi budowaniu bezpiecznego rynku gazu na kontynencie. Wynika to zarówno z różnych doświadczeń historycznych, jak i odmiennych realiów rynkowych poszczególnych państw. W takim kontekście rozsądne decyzje polityczne, oparte na zrozumieniu, że rynek gazu coraz bardziej się globalizuje i dostępne są nowe opcje dostaw, mogą stworzyć Europejczykom wspólną płaszczyznę korzystnej dla wszystkich współpracy. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
Nord Stream 2 (NS2) has become one of the most contested pipeline projects in European history. The controversy hinges upon the assessment of whether NS2 is a friend or a foe to European gas market security. It is rooted as much in diverging historical legacies as it is in the distinct market realities. In this context, smart policy choices grounded in understanding of the deepening and globalising natural gas market and new options for natural gas delivery can provide a common ground and facilitate a win-win situation for all Europeans. (original abstract)
Rocznik
Numer
Strony
45--75
Opis fizyczny
Twórcy
  • Rice University's Baker Institute; University of Pennsylvania
Bibliografia
  • Barteczko A., Poland wants U. S. sanctions to cover Nord Stream 2, "Reuters" [online], 29.01.2018 [accessed: 3.12.2018], available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-nordstream-usa/poland-wants-u-s-sanctions-to-cover-nord-stream-2-idUSKBN1FI134.
  • BP and Rosneft agree strategic cooperation gas business, "Rosneft" [online], 2.06.2017 [accessed: 10.10.2018], available at: https://www.rosneft.com/press/releases/item/186763/.
  • Collins G., Russia's use of the "energy weapon" in Europe, "Baker Institute for Public Policy" [online], 18.07.2017 [accessed: 26.10.2018], available at: https://www.bakerinstitute.org/media/fi les/fi les/ac785a2b/BI-Brief-071817-CES_Russia1.pdf.
  • Collins G., Mikulska A., Gas geoeconomics in Europe. Using strategic investments to promote liberalization, counterbalance Russian revanchism, and enhance European energy strategy, Baker Institute for Public Policy 2018. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/1911/102766 [accessed: 27.10.2018].
  • Company overview of Nord Stream 2 AG, "Bloomberg" [online, accessed: 23.10.2018], available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=383208587.
  • Conglin Xu, US LNG for Europe, "Oil & Gas Journal" [online], 23.04.2018 [accessed: 28.10.2018], available at: https://www.ogj.com/articles/print/volume-116/issue-4c/regular-features/journally-speaking/us-lng-for-europe.html.
  • DiChristopher T., Behind Nord Stream 2. The Russia-to-Germany gas pipeline that fueled Trump's anger at NATO meeting, "CNBC" [online], 11.07.2018 [accessed: 29.11.2018], available at: https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/11/behind-nord-stream-2-the-russia-to-germany-gas-pipeline-that-fueled-t.html.
  • Dillon J., Senators hatch $1B plan to promote gas, curb Russia, "E&E News" [online], 8.03.2019 [accessed: 3.04.2019], available at: https://www.eenews.net/energywire/stories/1060123499.
  • Dubien A., The opacity of Russian-Ukrainian energy relations, "Russie.Nei.Visions" 2017, No. 19.
  • Energy Union: Commission takes steps to extend common EU gas rules, "European Commission" [online], 8.11.2017 [accessed: 22.10.2018], available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-4401_en.htm.
  • European Commission, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. European Energy Strategy, Brussels 28.05.2014, COM (2014) 330.
  • Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:52014DC0330&qid=1407855611566 [accessed: 26.10.2018].
  • European Commission, Quarterly report on European gas markets, "DG Energy" 2017, vol. 10, issue 4. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/fi les/documents/quarterly_report_on_european_gas_markets_q4_2017_fi nal_20180323.pdf [accessed: 26.10.2018].
  • Finland, Estonia and Latvia to be single gas transport zone from 2020, "ICIS" [online], 14.02.2019 [accessed: 14.03.2019], available at: https://www.icis.com/explore/resources/news/2019/02/14/10319058/fi nland -estonia -and-latvia-to-be-single-gas-transport-zone-from-2020/.
  • Gas markets: Commission reinforces market conditions in revised exemption decision on OPAL pipeline, "European Commission" [online], 26.10.2016 [accessed: 25.11.2018], available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-3562_en.htm.
  • Gas: MEPs strengthen EU rules on pipelines to and from third countries, "European Parliament" [online], 21.03.2018 [accessed: 21.10.2018], available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20180320IPR00143/gas-meps-strengthen-eu-rules-on-pipelines-to-and-from-third-countries.
  • Gazprom chief says slight changes to Nord Stream 2 timings possible: Ifax, "Reuters" [online], 19.05.2019 [accessed: 19.05.2019], available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-gazprom-nordstream-2-miller/gazprom-chief-says-slight-changes-to-nord -stream-2-timings-possible-ifax-idUSKCN1SP0CS.
  • Gawlikowska-Fyk A., Terlikowski M., Wiśniewski B., Zaręba S., Nord Stream 2: inconvenient questions, PISM 2018 (PISM Policy Paper, 5 (165)). Available at: https://www.pism.pl/Publications/PISM-Policy-Paper-no-165 [accessed: 26.10.2018].
  • Gazprom says Swiss court blocks Nord Stream payments, "Reuters" [online], 12.11.2018 [accessed: 25.11.2018], available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-gazprom-nordstream/gazprom-says-swiss-court-blocks-nord-stream-payments-idUSKCN1NH1YM.
  • Hartley P., The future of long-term LNG contracts, Baker Institute for Public Policy 2013. Available at: https://scholarship.rice.edu/bitstream/handle/1911/91305/CES-Pub-GeogasLNG-110113-1.pdf?sequence=1 [accessed: 23.10.2018].
  • Henderson J., Russian LNG. Progress and delay in 2017, The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies 2017 (Energy Insight, 8). Available at: https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Russian-LNG---Progress-and-delay-in-2017-OIES-Energy-Insight.pdf [accessed: 19.10.2018].
  • Henderson J., Mitrova T., The political and commercial dynamics of Russia's gas export strategy, The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies 2015 (OIES Paper, NG 102). Available at: https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/NG-102.pdf [accessed: 14.10.2018].
  • Hinchey N., The impact of securing alternative energy sources on Russian-European natural gas pricing, "The Energy Journal" 2017, vol. 39, No. 2.
  • Hinchey N., Mikulska A., LNG versus Russian gas in Central and Eastern Europe. Playing poker on a continental scale, "Forbes" [online], 24.08.2017 [accessed: 27.11.2018], available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/thebakersinstitute/2017/08/24/lng-versus-russiangas-in-central-and-eastern-europe-playing-poker-on-a-continental-scale/
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.ekon-element-000171564637

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