Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 51 | nr 4 | 179--197
Tytuł artykułu

Competing Regionalism in South Asia and Neighbouring Regions under Narendra Modi: New Leadership, Old Problems

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
With the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral and Technical Cooperation (BIMST-EC) and the Mekong Ganga Cooperation Initiative (MGC), four different regional/sub-regional organisations exist in their respective regions. Yet, despite their decades-long existence, inter-state cooperation in all four regions has failed to meaningfully advance economic, social and/or political integration. This article uses a constructivist perspective and posits that India's foreign and security policy norms and ideas (termed India's 'cognitive prior') have been instrumental in determining the weak institutional design and limited functional scope of all four organisations, allowing only a restricted degree of actual regional cooperation to emerge. The article in particular argues that the organisations have been used in the frame of India's policy of 'competing regionalism'. All four organisations overlap in membership and sectors of cooperation. With the founding of each new organisation, India neglected the other organisation(s) and instead shifted its focus and resources towards the newer one. However, even competing regionalism has not resulted in improved regional cooperation in South Asia and neighbouring regions. At present, novel regional integration initiatives that purport to strengthen these organisations by the new Indian leadership under Prime Minister Narendra Modi remain elusive.(original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg
  • J. Nehru, 'Inter-Asian Relations', India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs 11, 1946, p. 32.
  • Bharatiya Janata Party, Election Manifesto, 2014, pdf (accessed 10 June 2014).
  • World Bank, 'South Asia: Growth and Regional Integration', 2007,,,contenMDK:21224087~pagePK:2865106~piPK:2865128~theSitePK:223547,00.html (accessed on 10 November 2007).
  • World Bank, 'Regional Integration in South Asia (Brief)', Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014, (accessed on 17 January 2014).
  • The IORA was called 'Indian Ocean Rim-Association for Regional Cooperation' (IOR-ARC) until 2014.
  • A. Acharya, Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the Problem of Regional Order, London: Routledge, 2001
  • J. Haacke, ASEAN's Diplomatic and Security Culture. Origins, Developments and Prospects, London: Routledge Curzon, 2003
  • A.Jetschke and J. Rüland, '40 Years of ASEAN: Perspectives, Performance and Lessons for Change', "The Pacific Review", 2008, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 397-409;
  • A. Jetschke, 'Institutionalising ASEAN: Celebrating Europe through Network Governance', "Cambridge Review of International Affairs", 2009, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 407-426.
  • D. Malone, Does the Elephant Dance? Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2011
  • S. Ganguly, India's Foreign Policy. Retrospect and Prospect, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2012
  • .S.D.Muni, A. Muni, Regional Cooperation in South Asia, New Delhi: National Publishing House, 1984
  • K. C. Dash, Regionalism in South Asia: Negotiating Cooperation, Institutional Structures, Milton Park, Abingdon: Routledge, 2008
  • L. Saez, The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): An Emerging Collaboration Architecture, London: Routledge, 2011.
  • A. L. George and A. Bennett, Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The MIT Press, 2005.
  • A. Michael, India's Foreign Policy and Regional Multilateralism, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013, pp. 21-47.
  • A. Acharya, 'How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism', "International Organization", 2004, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 239-275
  • Amitav A. Acharya, Whose Ideas matter. Agency and Power in Asian Regionalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009.
  • A. Michael, India's Foreign Policy, pp. 46-47.
  • R. U. Zaman, 'Kautilya: The Indian Strategic Thinker and Indian Strategic Culture', "Comparative Strategy", 2006, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 231-247;
  • M. Liebig, 'Kautilya's Relevance for India Today', "India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs" 2013, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 99-116
  • D. Shahi, 'Arthashastra Beyond Realpolitik. The "Eclectic" Face of Kautilya', "Economic and Political Weekly", 2014, Vol. 49, No. 41, pp. 68-74.
  • A. Appadorai, The Domestic Roots of India's Foreign Policy, 1947-1972, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.
  • M. Ayoob, The Third World Security Predicament: State-Making, Regional Conflict and the International System, Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1995, p. 103.
  • A. Acharya, 'Why is there no NATO in Asia? The Normative Origins of Asian Multilateralism', WCIF Working Paper 05-05, Harvard University Weatherhead Center, 2005, http://files.wcfia.harvard. edu/1049__Why_No_Asian_Nato_FINAL.pdf (accessed on 30 May 2010).
  • J.N. Dixit, Makers of India's Foreign Policy: Raja Ram Mohun Roy to Yashwant Sinha, New Delhi: HarperCollins India, 2004, p. 220.
  • S. Saran, 'Present Dimensions of Indian Foreign Policy' (address by Foreign Secretary Shyam Saran at the Shanghai Institute for International Studies, 2006), (accessed on 10 January 2007).
  • S.D. Muni and A. Muni, Regional Cooperation in South Asia, New Delhi: National Publishing House, 1984
  • S.D. Muni, 'SARC: Building Regionalim from Below', Asian Survey, 1985, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 391-404.
  • Z. Rahman, 'Letter on South Asian Cooperation,' 1978, accessed January 10, 2008, to Zia.pdf (accessed on 10 January 2008).
  • SAARC Secretariat, From SARC to SAARC: Milestones in the Evolution of Regional Cooperation in South Asia (1980-1988), Vol. 1, Kathmandu: SAARC Secretariat, 1988, pp. 2-3.
  • SAARC Secretariat, From SARC to SAARC, p. 7.
  • B. Chhibber, Regional Security and Regional Cooperation. A Comparative Study of ASEAN and SAARC, New Delhi: New Century Publications, 2004, p. 108.
  • I. Bokhari, 'SARC: Progress, Problems, Potential and Prospects', Asian Survey, 1985, Vol. 25, No. 4l, pp. 371-399.
  • I. Gandhi, 'Inaugural Address: Meeting of South Asian Foreign Ministers'," India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs", 1984, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, pp. 259-261.
  • R. Gandhi, 'Address at the First SAARC Summit, Dhaka, 7 December 1985', in Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (ed.), Selected Speeches and Writings of Rajiv Gandhi, 1984-1985, Vol. I: 31 October 1984-31 December 1985, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (ed.), New Delhi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Publications Division, 1987, p. 399
  • (accessed on 17 July 2015).
  • -ration/2015/06/27/article2889146.ece (accessed on 10 October 2015).
  • D. Scott, India's 'Extended Neighbourhood' Concept: Power Projection for a Rising Power', "India Review", 2009, Vol. 8, No. 2, p. 120.
  • R. Mehta, 'Indian Ocean Rim: Economic and Trade Issues', "Strategic Analysis", 1997, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 243-262.
  • A. Saeed, 'An Economic Forum for the Indian Ocean Region'," Regional Studies", 1995/1996, XIV, Vol. 1, pp. 59-94.
  • S. Gordon, 'Building Regionalism in the Indian Ocean.' in: S. Gordon et al, Security and Security Building in the Indian Ocean Region. Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defence, No. 116,
  • S. Gordon et. al. (eds), Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1996, p. 199.
  • K. R. Singh, 'The Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation: Regional Cooperation in the Indian Ocean', in R. Harshe and K.M. Seethi, Engaging with the World: Critical Reflections on India's Foreign Policy, R. Harshe and K. M. Seethi (eds), New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2005, pp. 342-355.
  • G. Evans, 'Indian Ocean Regional Cooperation: Exploring the Possibilities. Keynote Address to the International Forum on the Indian Ocean Region. Perth, 1995', (accessed on 10 January 2007).
  • C. Mahapatra, 'Cooperative Efforts in the Indian Ocean Region', Australian Defence Studies Centre Working Paper, 1996, No. 41, p. 18.
  • A. Downer, 'Looking West: Australia and the Indian Ocean. Address to the International Business Council of Western Australia. Perth, 1997', http:// (accessed on 10 October 2007).
  • H.S. Chhabra, 'Cooperation in the Indian Ocean Rim', The Hindu, November 8, 1996.
  • (accessed on 30 November 2015).
  • S. K. Mohanty and P. Dash, Trade and Investment Prospects of the IORA in the New Millennium - New Economic Frontiers of the Region, 2015, RIS Study.
  • S. Tharoor, 'Indian Ocean Unity', Project Syndicate, 15 July 2009, (accessed on 10 November 2010).
  • C. Raja R. Mohan, 'A Foreign Policy for the East', The Hindu, 16 July 2004.
  • (accessed on 20 August 2015).
  • Modi-Sharif Handshake Salvages SAARC Summit', Times of India, 27 November 2014 cms (accessed on 28 November 2014).
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.