International Organizations for Rail Transport: Genesis and Evolution
This article addresses the origins and evolution of international organizations dedicated to international rail transport. From the beginning of rail history, most of the railway networks in Europe were built by numerous private companies, which continuously competed and collaborated with each other within domestic transport as well as international transport. European railway companies made connections across borders based on personal and financial network relationships and established various types of agreements and unions to make international traffic possible. This coalition allowed them to jointly operate member networks, including running direct trains and establishing tariff agreements. Since international transport has grown in size and complexity, international railway organizations have continuously evolved. This study proceeds as follows: the first section outlines the beginnings and development of international rail transport organizations. With the expansion of the rail network in Europe, international cooperation in the field of railways occurred early in the 19th century. This mainly took the form of bilateral or multilateral agreements or even treaties among the States. Initially, these agreements affected the establishment of international organizations. The second section draws out international organizations between the First World War and the Second World War. In the interwar period, the existing organizations continued to expand their scope of activities and new organizations were founded. The third section examines the impact of the Cold War on international rail organizations. During the Cold War, many organizations were established in Western Europe, with active international railway cooperation. In Eastern Europe, a new international organization was established under the influence of the Soviet Union. The fourth section explains changes in international organizations after the Cold War. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the existing organizations steadily adapted themselves to changes in the political, economic, social, cultural and technological environments. Because of these various changes, new international organizations also emerged.(original abstract)
- N. Tontini, 'The Industrial Revolution Presentation', SlideShare, 2009, https://www.slideshare.net/ nictnt/the-industrial-revolution-presentation-1247384 (accessed on 30 October 2017).
- History of Rail Transport, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rail_trans_port (accessed on 2 November 2017).
- A. Mitchell, The Great Train Race: Railways and the Franco-German Rivalry, 1815-1914, New York: Berghahn, 2000, pp. 142-144.
- J. Schot, H. Buiter, I. Anastasiadou, 'The Dynamics of Transnational Railway Governance in Europe during the Long Nineteenth Century', History and Technology, 2011, vol. 27 (3), pp. 265-289, p. 268.
- R.L. Wedgwood, J.E. Wheeler, International Rail Transport, London: Oxford University Press, 1946, p. 5.
- Union of International Associations, 'International Conference for Railway Technical Unity (UT)' https://www.uia.org/ybio?name=&=Search (accessed on 10 September 2016).
- B.J. Houssiau, Marc Allegret: Decouvreur de Stars: Sous Les Yeux d'Andre Gide, Cabedita, 1994.
- http://www.cit-rail.org. CIT, History, http://www.cit-rail.org/en/objectives/ (accessed on 19 September 2016).
- Union of International Associations, International Railway Congress Association (IRCA), https:// www.uia.org/s/or/en/1100009006 (accessed on 6 July 2016).
- http://www.uitp.org. UITP (Advancing Public Transport), History, http://www.uitp.org/history (accessed on 18 June 2016).
- http://www.uic.org. UIC, History, http://www.uic.org/1922-UIC-a-long-life-organization (accessed on 13 June 2016).
- I. Anastasiadou, 'International Railway Organization in 19th and 20th Century Europe', Transport andMobility Conference, Transnational Infrastructures of Europe, 2007, pp. 15-16.
- Union of International Associations, International Union of Railway: UIC, https://www.uia.org/ ybio?name=&=Search (accessed on 3 May 2016).
- G. Ambrosius, Ch. Henrich-Franke, Integration of Infrastructures in Europe in Historical Comparison, Springer, 2015, p. 85.
- M. Kramer, 'The Demise of the Soviet Bloc', The Journal of Modern History, 2011, vol. 83 (4), pp. 788-854, p. 788.
- http://en.osjd.org, OSJD, Organization for Co-Operation between Railways (OSJD) - 60 Years, http://en.osjd.org/statico/public/en?STRUCTURE_ID=5050 (accessed on 10 October 2017).
- https://otif.org/en. OTIF, Mission, https://otif.org/en/?page_id=3 (accessed on 17 May 2016).
- https://www.unece.org. UNECE, Rail Transport, http://www.unece.org/trans/main/sc2/sc2.html (accessed on 12 June 2016).
- https://www.cen.eu. CEN, Who We Are, https://www.cen.eu/about/Pages/default.aspx (accessed on 11 January 2017).
- 20. http://www.idit.asso.fr. IDIT, Activities, http://www.idit.asso.fr/sommaire.php?anglais=1 (accessed on 4 January 2017).
- 21. http://www.uirr.com. UIRR, Our Association, http://www.uirr.com/en/our-association.html (accessed on 5 January 2017).
- 22. https://www.cenelec.eu. CENELEC, Who We Are, https://www.cenelec.eu/aboutcenelec/who- weare/index.html (accessed on 9 December 2016).
- 23. http://www.unife.org. UNIFE, Introduction, http://www.unife.org/about-us/who-we-are.html (accessed on 3 January 2017).
- 24. http://www.cer.be. CER, The Voice of European Railways, http://www.cer.be/about-us/who-we- -are (accessed on 4 May 2016).
- 25. http://www.unescap.org. UNESCAP, About ESCAP, http://www.unescap.org/about (accessed on 12 January 2016).
- 26. http://www.alaf.int.ar. ALAF, Association Information, http://masstransit.network/mass-transit- -associations/the-latin-american-association-of-railroads-alaf (accessed on 3 January 2017).
- 27. A. David, African Railway Information System, Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1983.
- 28. http://en.icctt.com. CCTT, Who We Are, http://en.icctt.com/cctt (accessed on 4 May 2016).
- 29. CCTT, The Trans-Siberian Mainline, http://en.icctt.com/transsib_mainline (accessed on 16 June 2016).
- 30. http://www.rne.eu/.
- 31. http://www.era.europa.eu/Pages/Home.aspx.
- 32. European Union Agency for Railways, Core Activities, http://www.era.europa.eu/Core-Activitie s/ Pages/home.aspx (accessed on 10 June 2017).
- 33. European Union, European Union Agency for Railways (ERA), https://europa.eu/european-union/ about-eu/agencies/era_en (accessed on 16 June 2016).
- 34. European Union Agency for Railways, About Us, http://www.era.europa.eu/The-Agency/About-us/ Pages/Home.aspx (accessed on 4 May 2016).