Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2019 | 11 | nr 1 | 229--238
Tytuł artykułu

Labor Costs and Localization in Global Value Chains: Comparative Analysis and Conclusions for Poland

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Labor costs in Poland are relatively low in comparison to other European Union (EU) countries. After long period of functioning Poland in closed economy, conditions significantly weakened the level of its competitiveness in the international market. When the boards were opened in 1989, it became clear that cheap work force was one of the most important factors to attract foreign investments. At the same time, globalization and internationalization of production created opportunity for entrepreneurs to establish global value chains. Participation in global value chain (GVC) of Poland can extend international trade and increase gross domestic product (GDP). On the other hand, low wages attract investments in low-technology industries and, moreover, place Poland in the middle of value chains, where semi-products are assembled and new value added is exiguous. The aim of the article is: 1) to present polish participation in global value chain, 2) to analyze how much low labor costs contribute to degree of share in global value chain, and 3) to show how level of labor costs contribute to position in value chain and how does it influence on benefits from participating in GVC. In the article, the quantitative and qualitative assessment of Eurostat (European statistic) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) statistics data and research on labor costs carried out in Poland were analyzed. The research tools include a critical analysis of literature and descriptive analytical method. More than 50% of polish exports takes place within the global value chains. Low labor costs attract investors to allocate part of their production in Poland. Nevertheless, great part of export constitutes semi-products that do not create new value added so benefits from participation in GVC are not so considerable as expected. It is desirable to shift Poland toward beginning or the end of value chains, where profits are higher. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
  • Carlin, W., Glyn, A. and van Reenen, J., 2001, January. Export Market Performance of OECD Countries: an Imperical Examination of the Role of Cost Competitiveness. The Economic Journal, 111, pp.128-162.
  • De Backer, K. and Miroudot, S., 2015. Mapping Global Value Chains. European Central Bank: Working Paper Series NO 1677 / May 2014.
  • Ertman, A., 2017. Elastyczność płac jako czynnik napływu bezpośrednich inwestycji zagranicznych w gospodarce otwartej (Wage Flexibility as a Factor in the Inflow of Foreign Direct Investment in an Open Economy). Białystok: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku - Rozprawa doktorska (Bialystok: University of Bialystok - Doctoral dissertation).
  • Eurostat, 2018a. High-tech Exports - Exports of High Technology Products as a Share of Total Exports (from 2007, SITC Rev. 4). [online] Available through: [Accessed on 13 September 2018].
  • Eurostat, 2018b. Labour cost levels by NACE Rev. 2. [online] Available through: http://appsso [Accessed on 10 September 2018].
  • Gereffi, G., Humphrey, J. and Sturgeon, T., 2005. The Governance of Global Value Chains. Review of International Political Economy, 12(1). pp.78-104.
  • Gołębiowska, M., 2017. Global Value Chains: Position of Polish Economy. Research on Enterprise in Modern Economy Quarterly Journal, No 3/2017 (22), pp.154-164.
  • Gryczka, M., 2018. Poziom kosztów pracy, jako czynnik przyciągający bezpośrednie inwestycje zagraniczne - analiza na przykładzie wybranych krajów (The Level of Labor Costs as a Factor Attracting Foreign Direct Investment - Analysis Based on the Example of Selected Countries). Studia Ekonomiczne, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach (Economic Studies, Scientific Notebooks of the University of Economics in Katowice), No. 352, pp.87-99.
  • GUS, 2016. Działalność gospodarcza podmiotów z kapitałem zagranicznym w 2015 r. (Economic Activity of Entities with Foreign Capital in 2015). Warszawa: GUS.
  • Kaplinsky, R. and Farooki, M., 2010. Global Value Chains, the Crisis, and the Shift of Markets from North to South. In: O. Cattaneo, G. Gereffi, and C. Staritz. Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World. A development Perspective. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, pp.125-154.uu
  • Kuźniar, A., 2017. Udział Polski w globalnych łańcuchach wartości (Poland's Participation in Global Value Chains). Horyzonty Polityki (Policy Horizons ), Vol. 8, No. 22, pp.49-65.
  • Mashayekhi, M., 2016. Tracing the Value-Added in Global Value Chains: Product-Level Case Studies In China. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
  • OECD, 2018, September 10. Trade in Value Added. Retrieved from OECD.stats:
  • Pilarska, C., 2006. Ocena atrakcyjności Polski dla inwestorów zagranicznych (Assessment of Poland's Attractiveness for Foreign Investors). Polskie Towarzystwo Ekonomiczne, Zeszyty Naukowe (Polish Economic Society, Scientific Notebooks), No. 4, pp.45-75.
  • Ścigała, D., 2014. Pozycja gospodarki polskiej w ramach globalnych łańcuchów wartości (The Position of the Polish Economy in Global Value Chains). In: M. Gorynia and S. Rudolf, eds. Polska w Unii Europejskiej i globalnej gospodarce (Poland in the Europen Union and the Global Economy). Warszawa: Polskie Towarzystwo Ekonomiczne, pp.68-87.
  • Storm, S. and Naastepad, C., 2014 September 15. Europe's Hunger Games: Income Distribuion, Cost Competitivenss and Crisis. Cambridge Journal of Economics Advance Access.
  • Wawrzyniak, D., 2017, Januar - Februar. Rynek pracy a bezpośrednie inwestycje zagraniczne w krajach Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej (Labor Market and Foreign Direct Investment in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe). Gospodarka Narodowa (National Economy), 1 (287), pp.53-68.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.