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2019 | z. nr 60 | 115--143
Tytuł artykułu

Labour Market Flexibility in Japan: 1960-2018

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Elastyczność japońskiego rynku pracy: 1960-2018
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
Artykuł podejmuje analizę japońskiego rynku pracy w okresie powojennym. Autorzy oferują nowatorski podział na podokresy w oparciu o sytuację makroekonomiczną. Systematyczny przegląd inicjatyw legislacyjnych ze strony rządu w reakcji na wątpliwe etycznie praktyki sektora prywatnego przynosi obraz gospodarki rozdzieranej walką o godne warunki pracy. Dążenie do osiągnięcia harmonii w społeczeństwie poprzez zwiększanie stabilności zatrudnienia doprowadziło do wytworzenia unikalnych praktyk zarządczych umożliwiających omijanie coraz sztywniejszych reguł japońskiego rynku pracy. Elastyczność rynku pracy redukowana była kolejnymi ustawami chroniącymi pracowników. W odpowiedzi na usztywnianie reguł zarządzania nakładem pracy, sektor prywatny wprowadził rozwiązania omijające niewygodne regulacje. Kilka dekad nieudolnych prób ochrony pracowników przez centrum rządowe przyniosło sytuację, w której ponad 40% wszystkich zatrudnionych pracuje w oparciu o niestandardowe kontrakty. Oznacza to, że pracę pełnoetatową wykonuje w Japonii coraz mniejsza grupa pracowników. Wywołuje to duże kontrowersje ze względu na brak tradycyjnych form ochrony pracowników (takich jak związki zawodowe) w przypadku tej frakcji na rynku pracy. Sytuacja ta odróżnia Japonię od pozostałych krajów wysokorozwiniętych. Wraz ze starzejącym się szybko społeczeństwem malejąca grupa pracowników pełnoetatowych tworzy zagrożenie dla stabilności systemu gospodarczego, w tym systemu emerytalnego.(abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
This paper offers an analysis of labour market developments in Japan in the post-war period. There is an original periodization based on macroeconomic performance. A systematic review of legislative initiatives as responses to questionable private sector practices delivers an image of the national economy torn by a struggle for decent working conditions. Striving for harmony in the society through increasing employment stability resulted in the creation of unique managerial solutions that allow for the circumventing of more and more rigid regulations governing the Japanese labour market. The flexibility of the labour market was reduced by consecutive legal acts aimed at protecting employees. Unfortunately, the private sector responded to these policy actions by introducing most undesirable solutions. Several decades of awkward attempts by the government to protect the labour force resulted in a situation when more than 40% of all employees work in non-standard working conditions. This, in turn means that full-time jobs are a luxury of a declining cohort. This is a good reason for concern, as this is about social inequality, also due to the lack of traditional forms of labour protection (i.e. labour unions among non-standard workers) This is what differentiates Japan from all other advanced economies. Together with the underlying society that is growing older, a declining group of full-timers creates a serious threat to the stability of the national economy, and the pension system in particular. (original abstract)
Rocznik
Numer
Strony
115--143
Opis fizyczny
Twórcy
autor
  • SOKA University
  • School of International Liberal Arts, Miyazaki International College, Japan
Bibliografia
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  • Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Retrieved from: https://www.e-stat.go.jp/stat-search/ files?page=1&layout=datalist&toukei=00450222&tstat=000001020327&cycle= 1&year=20190&month=23070908&tclass1=000001032430 (2019.09.30).
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  • Nagase, N. (2003). Standard and Nonstandard Work Arrangements, Pay Difference, and Choice of Work by Japanese Mothers. In: S. Houseman, M. Osawa (eds.), Nonstandard Work in Developed Countries (pp. 267-305). Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. DOI: 10.17848/9781417505326.Ch8.
  • Osumi, M. (2019). Probe reveals 759 cases of suspected abuse and 171 deaths of foreign trainees in Japan. Japan Times, 29th March 2019.
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  • "Unemployment Insurance Law" (1947)
  • "Minimum Wage Law" (1959)
  • "Employment Measures Law" (1966)
  • "Vocational Training Law" (1969) (enacted in 1958 and amended in 1969)
  • "Law concerning Special Measures for the Promotion of Employment of Middle-Aged and Older Persons" (1971)
  • "Employment Insurance Law" (1974)
  • "Law Concerning Temporary Measures for Workers Displaced from Specified Depressed Industries" (1977)
  • "Law Concerning Temporary Measures for Workers Displaced from Specified Depressed Areas" (1978)
  • "Case Law Establishing Doctrine of Abuse of Right of Dismissal" (in the late 1970s)
  • "Convention Concerning the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women" (1979)
  • "Equal Employment Opportunity Law between Men and Women" (1985)
  • "Equal Employment Opportunity Law" (1985)
  • "Worker Dispatching Law" (1985)
  • "Law to Secure Reasonable Operation of Worker Dispatching Enterprises and Proper Employment Conditions of Dispatched Workers" (1985)
  • "Law concerning Stabilization of Employment of Older Persons" (1986) (amended in 2000 and 2004)
  • "Law Concerning the Welfare of Workers Who Take Care of Children or Other Family Members Including Child Care and Family Care Leave" (1991)
  • "Law to Improve Employment Management to Secure the Work Force in Small and Medium Enterprises" (1991)
  • "Part-Time Work Law" (1993) (amended in 2008)
  • "Law for the Improvement of Employment Management of Short-Time Workers" (1993)
  • "Special Measures Law Concerning Employment Stabilization of Workers in Specified Depressed Industries" (1995)
  • International Labor Organization Treaty C181 (1997)
  • "Employment Security Law" (1999)
  • Amendment of "Law to Secure Reasonable Operation of Worker Dispatching Enterprises and Proper Employment Conditions of Dispatched Workers" (1999)
  • Amendment of "Labor Standard Law" (2003) (enacted in 1947 and amended several times)
  • "Labor Contract Law" (2007)
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.ekon-element-000171577084

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