Refugee and Forced Migrants Are Not Welcome in Europe's Diminished Welfare States
The recent arrivals of refugees from the Middle East fleeing war and persecution, and forced migrants escaping poverty, mostly from Asia and Africa, have fundamentally challenged European states' commitment to solidarity with these vulnerable populations seeking protection. Researchers have identified a range of social and individual factors that may facilitate or impede societies' willingness to receive refugees and migrants. However, less attention has been devoted to how their reception may be linked with diminished provision of public services for citizens and declining welfare states in many countries in Europe. This article considers how the ascendance of the neoliberal ideology and its' key shifts in public policy contributed to a growing sense of insecurity and precarity in industrialized countries over recent decades and has affected people's willingness to assist and accept them. It brings together insights from a variety of disciplines to better understand social policy developments and its relation to refugee and forced migration. It concludes that a feminist psychosocial conception of relationality provides a basis for rethinking our approaches to these important issues by politicizing the ethical obligation to protect the lives of unknown others. (original abstract)
- Aiyar, S., Barkbu, B., Batini, N., Berger, H., & Detragiache, E. (2016). The refugee surge in Europe: Economic challenges. IMF staff discussion note SDN/16/02, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC.
- Amnesty International (2015). Volunteers help refugees survive while Europe's leaders still search for solutions. Amnesty International [website], 21 September. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/campaigns/2015/09/volunteers-help-refugees-survive-whileeuropes-leaders-still-search-for-solutions/
- Arcaya, M. C., Arcaya, A. L., & Subramanian, S.V. (2015). Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories. Global Health Action, 8. https://doi: 10.3402/gha.v8.27106
- Arcimaviciene, L., & Baglama, S. H. (2018). Migration, metaphor and myth in media representations: The ideological dichotomy of 'them' and 'us'. Sage Open, 8(2). https://doi:10.1177/2158244018768657
- Arenaidé (2017). Welcoming refugees: Local European experiences. Report from the conference held in Norrkö ping 25-27 January 2017. https://arenaide.se/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2017/01/conference-report-welcoming-refugees-local-european-experiences.pdf
- Arendt, H. (1976/1951). The origins of totalitarianism. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
- Armstrong, D. (2005). Organization in the mind: Psychoanalysis, group relations and organizational consultancy. Karnac Books.
- Bauman, Z. (2016). Strangers at our door. Polity Press.
- BBC (2017). The Greek island where Syrian refugees are welcome. BBC News, 12 July. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/world-europe-40586229/the-greek-island-where-syrianrefugees-are-welcome
- Benjamin, J. (2004). Beyond doer and done to: An intersubjective view of thirdness. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 73(1), 5-46.
- Berry, M., Garcia-Blanco, I., & Moore, K. (2015). Press coverage of the refugee and migrant crisis in the EU: A content analysis of five European countries. Report prepared for the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. https://www.unhcr.org/56bb369c9.pdf
- Betts, A. (2010). Survival migration: A new protection framework. Global Governance, 16(3), 361-382.
- Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (2009). Culture and the evolution of human cooperation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1533), 3281-3288.
- Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. Routledge.
- Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of 'sex'. Routledge.
- Butler, J. (2004). Precarious life: The powers of mourning and violence. Verso.
- Butler, J. (2009). The frames of war. Verso.
- Canal, G. (2017). Refugees brought this small, dying Italian village back to life. Global Citizen, 19 April. https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/refugees-brought-this-smalldying-italian-village/
- Castles, S. (2003). Towards a sociology of forced migration and social transformation. Sociology, 37(1), 13-34.
- Castles, S., & Miller, J. M. (2009). The age of migration: International population movement in the modern world (4th ed.). Palgrave MacMillan.
- Chang, H. (2008). Autoethnography as method. Left Coast Press.
- Chang, S.-S., Stuckler, D., Yip. P., & Gunnell, D. (2013). Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: Time trend study in 54 countries. British Medical Journal, 347. https://doi:10.1136/bmj.f5239
- Chen, W., Mrkaic, M., & Nabar, M. (2018). Lasting effects: The global economic recovery 10 years after the crisis. IMF Blog, 3 October. https://blogs.imf.org/2018/10/03/lastingeffects-the-global-economic-recovery-10-years-after-the-crisis/
- Cholewinski, R., & Taran, P. (2009). Migration, governance and human rights. Refugee Review Quarterly, 28(4), 1-33.
- Cieślińska, B. (2017). Hospitality and the migration crisis. Rocznik Teologii Katolickiej, 16, 93-110.
- Cieślińska, B., & Dziekońska, M. (2019). The ideal and the real dimensions of the European migration crisis: The Polish perspective. Social Sciences, 8(11), art. 314. https://doi:10.3390/socsci8110314
- Collier, P. (2018). The future of capitalism: Facing new anxieties. Allen Lane.
- Coppola, F. (2018). The greatest depression. Forbes, 31 July.
- D'Albis, H., Boubtane, E., & Coulibaly, D. (2018). Macroeconomic evidence suggests that asylum seeks are not 'a burden' for Western European countries. Science Advances, 4(6). https://doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaq0883
- Dempster, H., & Hargrave, K. (2017). Understanding public attitudes towards refugees and migrants. ODI Working Paper 512, Overseas Development Institute, London.
- Dennison, J., & Draž anová , L. (2018). Public attitudes on migration - Rethinking how people perceive migration: An analysis of existing opinion polls in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Migration Policy Centre, European University Institute.
- Dorling, D. (2015). Inequality and the 1%. Verso.
- Duda-Mikulin, E. A. (2019). EU migrant workers, Brexit and precarity. Polish women perspectives from inside the UK. Bristol University Press.
- Esses, V., Hamilton, L. K., & Gaucher, D. (2017). The global refugee crisis: Empirical evidence and policy implications for improving public attitudes and facilitating refugee resettlement. Social Issues and Policy Review, 11(1), 78-123.
- Ettinger, B. L. (2006). The matrixial borderspace (essays from 1994-1999). University of Minnesota Press.
- Fine, S. (2019). All at sea: Europe's crisis on solidarity for migration. Policy Briefing, European Council on Foreign Relations, 14 October. https://www.ecfr.eu/publications/summary/all_at_sea_europes_crisis_of_solidarity_on_migration
- Fotaki, M. (2006). Choice is yours: A psychodynamic exploration of health policy making and its consequences for the English National Health Service. Human Relations, 59(12), 1711-1744.
- Fotaki, M. (2010a). Equity and choice in health care: Can they go hand in hand? Theory and evidence. Sociology of Health & Illness, 32(6), 898-913.
- Fotaki, M. (2010b). Why do public policies fail so often? Exploring health policy making as an imaginary/symbolic construction. Organization, 17(6), 703-720.
- Fotaki, M. (2011). Towards developing new partnerships in public services: Users as consumers, citizens and/or co-producers driving improvements in health and social care in the UK and Sweden. Public Administration, 89(3), 933-955.
- Fotaki, M. (2014). Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care. Sociology of Health & Illness, 36(8), 1276-1294.
- Fotaki, M. (2016). Outsourcing a humanitarian crisis to Turkey - is that the European thing to do? The Conversation, 9 March. https://theconversation.com/outsourcing-ahumanitarian-crisis-to-turkey-is-that-the-european-thing-to-do-55915
- Fotaki, M. (2017a). TEDx talk: Turning fear to purpose. TEDxVlerickBusinessSchool [video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-aP_Ug11La4
- Fotaki, M. (2017b). Relational ties of love: A psychosocial proposal for ethics of compassionate care in health and public services. Psychodynamic Practice, 23(3), 181-189.
- Fotaki, M. (2019a). Relationality in the age of neoliberal dispossession: Protecting the other. In: U. Lewin and A. Zajenkowska (eds.), Europe on the couch (Ch. 3). Routledge.
- Fotaki, M. (2019b). A crisis of humanitarianism: Refugees at the gates of Europe. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 8(6), 321-324.
- Fotaki, M. (2020). Choosing providers. In: E. Nolte, S. Merkur, & A. Anell, (eds.) Placing the person at the centre of the health system: Learning from innovation and best practice. (Ch. 8) (201-227). WHO European Observatory. Cambridge University Press.
- Fotaki, M., & Boyd, A. (2005). From plan to market: A comparison of health and old age care policies in the UK and Sweden. Public Money & Management, 25(4), 237-243.
- Fotaki, M., & Prasad, A. (2015). Questioning neoliberal capitalism and economic inequality in business schools. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(4), 556-575.
- Gogou, K. (2017). The EU-Turkey deal: Europe's year of shame. Amnesty International [website], 20 March. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/03/the-eu-turkey-deal-europes-year-of-shame/
- Hainmueller, J., & Hopkins, D. J. (2014). Public attitudes toward immigration. Annual Review of Political Science, 17, 225-249.
- Haiven, M. (2014). Cultures of financialization: Fictitious capital in popular culture and everyday life. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Haque, M. S. (2001). The diminishing publicness of public service under the current mode of governance. Public Administration Review, 61, 65-82.
- Hein, J. (1993). Refugees, immigrants and the state. Annual Review of Sociology, 19, 43-59.
- Hunter, P. (2016). The refugee crisis challenges national health care systems. EMBO Reports, 17(4), 492-495.
- Huntington, S. P. (1993). The clash of civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22-49.
- International Migration Office (2020). Flow monitoring in Europe. https://migration.iom.int/europe?type=arrivals
- Jaskułowski, K. (2019). The everyday politics of migration crisis in Poland: Between nationalism, fear and empathy. Palgrave.
- Karakayali, S. (2018). The Flüchtlingskrise in Germany: Crisis of the refugees, by the refugees, for the refugees. Sociology, 52(3), 606-611.
- Keay, D. (1987). Interview with Margaret Thatcher. Woman's Own, 23 September.
- King, R., & Lulle, A. (2016). Research on migration: Facing realities and maximising opportunities - a policy review. European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/research/social-sciences/pdf/policy_reviews/ki-04-15-841_en_n.pdf
- Konat, G. (2019). How Poland's failed transition fed the nationalist right. JacobinMag, 11 April. https://www.jacobinmag.com/2019/11/poland-law-justice-party-pis-austerityneoliberalism
- Krachler, N., & Greer, I. (2015). When does marketisation lead to privatisation? Profit-making in English health services after the 2012 Health and Social Care Act. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 215-223.
- Krzyżanowska, N., & Krzyżanowski, M. (2018). 'Crisis' and migration in Poland: Discursive shifts, anti-pluralism and the politicisation of exclusion. Sociology, 52(3), 612-618.
- Krzyżanowski, M. (2018). We are a small country that has done enormously lot: The 'Refugee Crisis' and the hybrid discourse of politicizing immigration in Sweden. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 16(1-2), 97-116.
- Legrain, P. (2016). Refugees work: A humanitarian investment that yields economic dividends. Open Political Economy Network, 18 May. http://www.opennetwork.net/refugeeswork/
- Lewis, H., Dwyer, P., Hodkinson, H., & Waite, L. (2015). Hyper-precarious lives: Migrants, work and forced labour in the Global North. Progress in Human Geography, 39(5), 580-600.
- Long, K. (2012). In search of sanctuary: Border closures, 'safe' zones, and refugee protection. Journal of Refugee Studies, 26(3), 458-476.
- Long, K. (2013). When refugees stopped being migrants: Movement, labour and humanitarian protection. Migration Studies, 1(1), 4-26.
- Long, S. (1999). The tyranny of the customer and the cost of consumerism: An analysis using systems and psychoanalytic approaches to groups and society. Human Relations, 52(6), 723-743.
- Long, S. (2008). The perverse organization and its deadly sins. Karnac.
- Łaciak, B., & Segeš Frelak, J. (2018). The wages of fear: Attitudes towards refugees and migrants in Poland. Foundation Institute of Public Affairs/Fundacja Instytut Spraw Publicznych.
- Maccanico, Y., Hayes, B., Kenny, S., & Barat, F. (2018). The shrinking space for solidarity with migrants and refugees: How the European Union and member states target and criminalize defenders of the rights of people on the move. Transnational Institute. https://www.tni.org/files/publication-downloads/en_theshrinkingspace.pdf
- Malkki, L. H. (1995). Refugees and exile: From 'refugee studies' to the National Order of Things. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, 495-523.
- Malkki, L. H. (1996). Speechless emissaries: Refugees, humanitarianism and dehistoricization. Cultural Anthropology, 11(3), 377-404.
- McHugh-Dillon, H. (2015). If they are genuine refugees, why? Public attitudes to unauthorised arrivals in Australia. Foundation House.
- Money-Kyrle, R. (1971). The aim of psychoanalysis. In: D. Meltzer (ed.), The collected papers of Roger Money-Kyrle (Ch. 33). Clunie Press.
- Nilsson, P. (2018). Opening the door to the far right. Jacobin Magazine, 9 October. https://www.jacobinmag.com/2018/09/sweden-election-sap-sweden-democrats-immigrationfar-right
- Offe, C. (2018). Democracy can't survive without the welfare state: An interview with Maya Razmadze. Jacobin Magazine, 16 December. https://www.jacobinmag.com/2018/12/offe-work-society-capitalism-jobs-welfare-sharing-economy
- Papademetriou, D. G., & Banulescu-Bogdan, N. (2016). Understanding and addressing public anxiety about immigration. Migration Policy Institute.
- Puig de la Bellacasa, M. (2012). 'Nothing comes without its world': Thinking with care. Sociological Review, 60(2), 196-216.
- Rea, A., Martiniello, M., Mazzola, A., & Meuleman, B. (eds.) (2019). The refugee reception in Europe. Polarized opinions and mobilizations. É ditions de l'Université de Bruxelles.
- Reinisch, J. (2015). History matters ... But which one? Every refugee crisis has context. History & Policy, 29 September. http://www.historyandpolicy.org/policy-papers/papers/history-matters-but-which-one-every-refugee-crisis-has-a-context
- Rizq, R. (2013). States of abjection. Organization Studies, 34(9), 1277-1297.
- Sandel, M. (2009). Justice. What is the right thing to do? Penguin Books Ltd.
- Sassen, S. (2014) Expulsions: Brutality and complexity in the global economy. Belknap Press.
- Scott-Samuel, A., Bambra, C., Collins, C., Hunter, D., McCartney, G., & Smith, K. (2014). The impact of Thatcherism on and health and well-being in Britain. International Journal of Health Services, 44(1), 53-71.
- Taylor, M., Wintour, P., & Elgot, J. (2015). Calais crisis: Cameron pledges to deport more people to end 'swarm' of migrants. The Guardian, 30 July. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/jul/30/calais-migrants-make-further-attempts-to-cross-channel-intobritain
- Tokarczuk, O. (2019). Nobel lecture: The tender narrator. The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden, 7 December.
- Tramontana, F. (2018). Five lessons history can teach us about migration. Warwick Knowledge Centre [website], 24 July. http://warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/knowledgecentre/arts/history/migration
- Tronto, J. (1993). Moral boundaries: A political argument for an ethic of care. Routledge.
- Tyler, I. (2013). Revolting subjects: Social abjection and resistance in neoliberal Britain. Zed Books.
- UNHCR (1951). The 1951 Refugee Convention. UNHCR. http://www.unhcr.org/1951-refugee-convention.html
- UNHCR (2015). Over one million sea arrivals reach Europe in 2015. UNHCR News Stories, 30 December. http://www.unhcr.org/5683d0b56.html
- Wadsworth, J., Dhingra, S., Ottaviano, G., & Van Reenen, J. (2016). Brexit and the impact of immigration on the UK. Centre of Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science.
- WEF (2017). The future of Europe: Comparing public and elite attitudes. World Economic Forum [website], 20 October. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/10/the-future-ofeurope-comparing-public-and-elite-attitudes/
- Widmalm, S. (2018). The ideology of economism can explain the rise of right-wing populism in the upcoming Swedish elections. Respons, 3. http://tidskriftenrespons.se/artikel/ideology-economism-can-explain-rise-right-wing-populism-upcoming-swedish-election/