Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2019 | 6 | nr 53 | 1--24
Tytuł artykułu

The Unobserved Economy and the Dutch National Accounts after the Benchmark Revision 2015

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
In 2018, Statistics Netherlands carried out a general benchmark revision of their national accounts statistics. The base year was 2015. Special attention was paid to the exhaustiveness of the estimates. Among other, these include estimates for illegal activities and tax evasion. In the first step, the main (illegal and off the record) activities that were not included in the regular data sources underlying the national accounts were identified. In the second step, estimates were made for each identified activity, based on the scarce information data sources available, supplemented with assumptions. This paper describes the second step. The value added of illegal activities in 2015 was estimated at 4.8 billion euros, which is 0.7% of gross domestic product (GDP). The explicit adjustment for tax evasion was about 3.9 billion euros, which is slightly, (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, The Hague, Netherlands
  • Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, The Hague, Netherlands
  • Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, The Hague, Netherlands
  • [1] Bikker, R., Daalmans, J., & Mushkudiani, N. (2013). Benchmarking large accounting frameworks: A generalized multivariate model. Economic Systems Research, 25(4), 390-408.
  • [2] Bonger, W. A. (1915). Vermogen en inkomen in Nederland (II, 1908-1913). De Nieuwe Tijd 20: 226-249 and 269-291. [Capital and income in the Netherlands]
  • [3] Bonger, W. A. (1923). Vermogen en inkomen in Nederland gedurende de oorlogstijd (1913-1920). Amsterdam: Ontwikkeling. [Capital and income in the Netherlands during the war]
  • [4] BOVAG - RAI Vereniging. (2017). BOVAG-RAI Aftersales Monitor 2016.
  • [5] Broesterhuizen, G. A. A. M. (1985). The unobserved sector and the national accounts in the Netherlands. In W. Gaertner & A. Wenig (Eds.), The Economics of the Shadow Economy: Conference Proceedings Bielefeld (pp. 105-126). Berlin, German: Springer Verlag.
  • [6] Calzaroni, M. (2000). The exhaustiveness of production estimates: New concepts and methodologies. Proceedings of the International Conference on Establishment Surveys, Buffalo, 2000, Statistics Canada, Ottawa.
  • [7] Central Statistical Bureau Latvia. (2014). Changes in the calculation of gross domestic product were carried out. Press release 30 September 2014.
  • [8] Central Statistical Office. (2014). Implementing New International Standards for National Accounts and Balance of Payments Statistics. Press release 3 July 2014.
  • [9] Commissie Dienstverlening aan huis. (2014). Dienstverlening aan huis: wie betaalt de rekening? Advies commissie Dienstverlening aan huis. Zoetermeer: Panteia. [Home services: who pays the bill? Advice of the commission on home services]
  • [10] Croatian Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Notes on methodology; Gross domestic product and main aggregates of national accounts. Press release 10 September 2014.
  • [11] Cystat. (2014). Revision of national accounts 1995- 2013.
  • [12] Czech Statistical Office. (n.d)(a). Annexes: Main revision 2011.
  • [13] Czech Statistical Office. (n.d)(b). Quality report 2014; Czech republic.
  • [14] Czech Statistical Office. (2010). Gross national income inventory 200, Czech Republic, 2002.
  • [15] Daalder, A. L. (2015). Prostitutie in Nederland anno 2014. Cahier 2015-1 (WODC). [Prostitution in the Netherlands anno 2014].
  • [16] Danmarks Statistik. (2016). Danish GDP and GNI, Sources and methods, 2012.
  • [17] de Langen, J. W. (1939). Enkele ontwikkelingen over de controle en repressiemiddelen van de fiscus. Geschriften van de Vereeniging voor Belastingwetenschap 48. Purmerend: Muusses. [Some developments of the control and repression of the tax authorities]
  • [18] Derksen, J. B. D. (1939). Berekening van het Nationale vermogen uit de aangiften van de successiebelasting. De Nederlandse Conjunctuur (X): 72-77. [Calculation of the national capital from the returns of the inheritance tax].
  • [19] Destatis. (2016). National Accounts; Domestic product and national income in accordance with ESA 2010; Methods and Sources; Edition 2016.
  • [20] Edens, B., & Bruil, A. (2014). Inclusion of non-observed economy in Dutch national accounts after the 2010 ESA revision. The Hague, Netherlands: Statistics Netherlands.
  • [21] European Parliament. (2016). Answer given by Mr Almunia on behalf of the Commission. Parliamentary questions 7 November 2006.
  • [22] Eurostat. (2013). European system of accounts, ESA 2010. Official Journal of the European Union L174, 56.
  • [23] Evensen, T. N. (2011). Illegal økonomi i nasjonalregnskapet. Notater 16/2011. Oslo, Norway: Statistics Norway. [Illegal economy in the national accounts].
  • [24] Feige, E. L. (1979). How big is the irregular economy? Challenge, 22(5), 5-13.
  • [25] Ferwerda, H., van Ham, T., Scholten, L., & Jager, D. (2016). Focus op heling: een onderzoek naar het functioneren van de helingmarkt, het beleid tegen en de gevolgen van heling. Arnhem, Netherlands: Bureau Beke. [Focus on fencing: an investigation into the functioning of the fencing market, the policy against and the effects of fencing].
  • [26] Gimming, K., Halvorsen, T., Skoglund, T., & Sørensen, K. Ø (2011). Revised national accounts figures 1970-2010. Economic Survey, 2011(4), 20-27.
  • [27] Global Retail Theft Barometer. (2015). The new barometer 2014-2015. Thorofare, NJ: Checkpoint Systems.
  • [28] Helfferich, K. (1914). Deutschlands Volkswohlstand 1888-1913. Berlin, German: Verlag van Georg Silke. [Germany's national wealth 1888-1913].f
  • [29] Hungarian Central Statistical Office. (2011). GNI Inventory of Hungary, version 2.2.
  • [30] Hungarian Central Statistical Office. (2014). National accounts of Hungary, 2013 (preliminary data).
  • [31] Husen, G., & van Dijk, T. (2014). In gesprek met de klant: een onderzoek naar klanten van prostituees en hun rol bij de aanpak van misstanden. E&G reeks 2014/3. Amsterdam, Ther Netherlands: GGD. [In conversation with the client: an investigation into clients of prostitution and their role in tackling abuses].
  • [32] Insee. (n.d.). ESA 2010 GNI inventory - France.
  • [33] Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (2014). Spanish National Accounts,. New base 2010; 2010-2013 Series. Press release, 25 September 2014 (updated on 3 October).
  • [34] ISTAT. (2014). Summary of the Esa2010 Revision of National Accounts, Year 2011. Press release 9 September 2014.
  • [35] ISTAT. (2015). Non observed economy in national accounts, years 2011-2013. Press release 4 December 2015.
  • [36] Kahoun, J. (2012). Revision of regional accounts 2011. Statistica, 49(2), 62-75.
  • [37] Kalidien, S. N. (ed). (2015). Criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving 2015: ontwikkelingen en samenhangen (Raad voor de rechtspraak, Statistics Netherlands, Boomcriminologie, WODC). [Crime and law enforcement 2015: development and coherence].
  • [38] Kazemier, B. (1984). De enquête woningonderhoud en -verbetering: een onderzoek naar het zwarte circuit. Statistisch Magazine, 4(1), 31-38. Voorburg/ Heerlen: Statistics Netherlands [The survey on home repair and home improvement: a research into the hidden economy].
  • [39] Kazemier, B. (2006). Monitoring the Underground Economy - A Survey of methods and Estimates. In H. Enste & F. Schneider (Eds.), Jahrbuch Schattenwirtschaft 2006/2007; Zum Spannungsfeld von Politik und Ökonomie (pp. 11-53). Vienna/Berlin, Austria/German: Lit Verlag.
  • [40] Kazemier, B. (2014). Hidden workers and hidden worker potential in the Netherlands. Economic Analysis and Policy, 44, 39-50.
  • [41] Kazemier, B., Bruil, A., van de Steeg, A., & Rensman, M. (2013). The contribution of illegal activities to national income in the Netherlands. Public Finance Review, 41(5), 544-577.
  • [42] Kazemier, B., & Rensman, M. (2015). De illegale economie en national inkomen. Justitiële verkenningen, 41(1), 35-50. [The illegal economy and national income].
  • [43] Korps landelijke politiediensten. (2012). Nationaal dreigingsbeeld 2012. Georganiseerde criminaliteit. Zoetermeer: KLPD. [National threat assessment 2012. Organized crime].
  • [44] Kuksin. (2013). Prostitution. Ein normales Gewerbe seit der Legalisierung über das Prostitutionsgesetz? (Hausarbeit 2013). Hamburg: University of Hamburg. [Prositution. A normal business since the legalization of the Prostitution Act?].
  • [45] Kuznets, S. (1941). National income and its composition, 1919-1938. New York, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • [46] Lourens, E. (2004). Bouwen in eigen beheer en onrechtmatige bedrijfsuitoefening in 2003. Amsterdam, Netherlands: EIB. [Own-account construction and clandestine business].
  • [47] Markelevičius, J. (2011). Revision of time series of gross domestic product and gross national income in Lithuania for 2000-2010. Vilnius, Lithuania: Statistics Lithuania.
  • [48] Ministry of Finance. (2014). Onderzoek naar macroeconomische schatting van gemiste omzetbelasting (btw gap). [Research into a macro-economic estimate of missed sales-tax (vat gap)].
  • [49] Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. (2014). Aanpak malafide uitzendbureaus en zelfregulering. [Tackling malicious employment agencies and selfregulation]
  • [50] Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. (2017). Eerlijk werk door uitzendbureaus 2016. [Honest work by employment agencies]
  • [51] National Bank of Belgium. (2017). Gross National Income, Methodological inventory Belgium, ESA 2010.
  • [52] National Institute of Statistics Romenia. (n.d.). Estemarea Activităţilor ilegale în România. [Estimates of illegal activities in Romania]
  • [53] National Statistics Office Malta. (2015). Gross National Income Inventory European System of Accounts 2010; Sources and Methods for the Compilation of the Gross National Income for the Maltese Islands.
  • [54] Nijkamp, R., Sijtstra, M., Snippe, J., & Bieleman, B. (2014). VERBODEN ROOD IN BEELD: Onderzoek aard en omvang niet-legale prostitutie in 2014. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Intraval, GronenRotterdam. [A picture of prohibited red: a research into the nature and size of non-legal prostitution].
  • [55] OECD/IMF/ILO/CIS STAT. (2002). Measuring the non-observed economy; A handbook. Paris: OECD.
  • [56] Office for National Statistics. (2014a). National Accounts Articles - Impact of ESA95 Changes on Current Price GDP Estimates.
  • [57] Office for National Statistics. (2014b). Impact of Blue Book 2014 changes on GDP at current market prices, Annex F (excel-sheet).
  • [58] Rabobank. (2017). Branche-informatie: Schadeherstelbedrijven, Rabobank Cijfers & Trends 2 July 2017. [Branche-information: (Car) repair companies].
  • [59] Reuters. (2016). Press Digest - Bulgaria - Oct 1.
  • [60] Schneider, F., & Buehn, A. (2018). Shadow economy: Estimation methods, problems, results and open questions. Open Economics, 2018(1), 1-29.
  • [61] Smekens, M., & Verbruggen, M. (2005). The illegal economy in the Netherlands. Discussion paper 05005. Voorburg, South Holland: Statistics Netherlands.
  • [62] Statistični urad Republike Slovenije. (2013). GDP exhaustiveness adjustments and shadow economy, Slovenia, 2010. Press release June 27, 2013, Special release.
  • [63] Statistics Austria. (2016). Inventory of methods for national accounts in Austria according to ESA2010, version March 2016.
  • [64] Statistics Estonia. (2017). Gross National Income Inventory ESA 2010; 3. Version; Estonia.
  • [65] Statistics Finland. (2016). ESA 2010 GNI Inventory, Finland, version May 2016.
  • [66] Statistics Netherlands. (2017). Gross National Income Inventory (ESA 2010), 2010 The Netherlands.
  • [67] Statistics Poland. (2015). Notatka informacyjna. Press release 29 September 2014.
  • [68] Statistics Portugal. (2017). Revision policy of the Portuguese National Accounts System; Benchmark-year 2011.
  • [69] Statistics Sweden. (2016). Sweden GNI Inventory. March 2016 (Rev. Oct 2016).
  • [70] Statistics Netherlands. (1951). Statistische en Econometrische verkenningen. 6(4), 168-180.
  • [71] van der Werf, R., & van de Ven, P. (1996). The illegal economy in the Netherlands. Paper presented at the 24th General Conference of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, Lillehammer, Norway, 18-24 August, 1996.
  • [72] van Eck, R., & Kazemier, B. (1988). Features of the hidden economy in the Netherlands. Review of Income and Wealth, 34(3), 251-273.
  • [73] van Eck, R., & Kazemier, B. (1989). Zwarte arbeid, een empirische en methodologische studie. (PhD. Thesis, University of Amsterdam). [Hidden labour, an empirical and methodological study]
  • [74] Vereniging Eigen Huis. (2015). Zwartwerken: getolereerd maar niet zonder risico's (press release, August 16, 2015). [Hidden work: tolerated but not without risk]
  • [75] Weber, O., & Emprou, J.-M. (2014). Sur l'impact de l'économie illégale sur l'économie Luxembourgeoise. Regards 13 (July 2014). [On the impact of the illegal economy on the Luxembourg economy]
  • [76] WODC. (2011). Monitor Criminaliteit Bedrijfsleven 2010: Feiten en trends inzake aard en omvang van criminaliteit in het bedrijfsleven. The Hague, Netherlands: WODC. [Monitor Crime in Business 2010: Facts and trends in the nature and scale of crime in business].
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.