Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2020 | 8 | nr 3 | 65--82
Tytuł artykułu

Advancing the Contextual Factors Impeding the Development of Aquapreneurship in Cameroon

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Objective: The principal drive of this investigation was toward examining the contextual factors impeding the growth and development of aquapreneurship in Cameroon.

Research Design & Methods: A quantitative method approach incorporating a self-administered questionnaire was adopted. Through a snowball sampling technique, this study collected data from questionnaires of 150 aquapreneurs. Using SPSS, descriptive, Chi-square test and correlation test statistics were employed to analyse and test the independence between variables in the quantitative data.

Findings: Findings revealed that, fish farmers faced several challenges which included high cost of constructing, filling and managing ponds, high rate of fish predators, death of fishes due to diseases, lack of finance, lack of industries to manufacture quality fish feed, lack of space to expand their businesses and high cost of feed among others.

Implications & Recommendations: All-encompassing measures by the government regarding awareness through education, production of fingerlings at low cost to farmers, encouraging new entrant of fish feed manufacturing industries and credit policies to accommodate aquapreneurs and improve incorporation into the globalised economy are recommended.

Contribution & Value Added: This study is significant because it highlights the plight of aquapreneurs in a developing country such as Cameroon and bringing to the fore the challenges this sector encounter to develop the aquaculture industry. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • Walter Sisulu University, South Africa
  • Agboola, W. (2011). Improving Fish farming Productivity towards achieving food security in Osun State, Nigeria: A socioeconomic analysis. Annals of Biological Research, 2(3), 62-74.
  • Aldrich, H.E., & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D.L. Sexton & R.W. Smiler (Eds.), The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Newyork: Ballinger.
  • Aldrich, H. (1999). Organisations Evolving. New York: Sage Publications.
  • Atiase, V.Y., Mahmood, S., Wang, Y., & Botchie, D. (2018). Developing entrepreneurship in Africa: Investigating critical resource challenges. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 25(4), 644-666.
  • Badr, M.L., Salwa, O., & Ahmed, Y. (2015). Perceived barriers to consumption of freshwater fish in Morocco. British Food Journal, 117(1), 274-285.
  • Barnett, W., Greve, H., & Park, D. (1994). An evolutionary model of organizational performance. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 11-28.
  • Béné, C., & Heck, S. (2005). Fish and food security in Africa. NAGA, WorldFish Center Quarterly, 28(3&4), 8-13.
  • Bigwa, C. (2013). Feasibility of aquaculture in Cameroon: the case of the Noun Division in the West region [final project].
  • Blanchflower, D., Oswald, A., & Stutzer, A. (2001). Latent entrepreneurship across nations? European Economic Review, 45, 680-691.
  • Bogne Sadeu, C., Mikalasek, O., Barlet, B., Chia, E., Pouomogne, V., & Eyango, M.T. (2008). Change in the practices and representations of small-scale fish farming activity: a partnership research process in West Cameroon. In 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture 2008. Yaounde, Cameroon:
  • Brandi, C. (2017). Sustainability standards and sustainable development -synergies and trade-offs of transnational governance. Sustain Development, 25, 25-34.
  • Brummett, R.E., Gockowsky, J., Pouomogne, V., & Muir, J. (2011). Targeting Agricultural Research and Extension for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation: A case study of Fish farming in Central Cameroon. Aquaculture Economics & Management, 8(5/6), 1-10.
  • Chigunta, F. (2017). Entrepreneurship as a possible solution to youth unemployment in Africa. Laboring and Learning, 10, 433-451.
  • Clausen, T. (2006). Who identifies and exploits entrepreneurial opportunities. Retrieved from on June 17,2017.
  • Conijn, J.G., Bindraban, P.S., Schröder, J.J., & Jongschaap, R.E. (2018). Can our global food system meet food demand within planetary boundaries.? Agriculture Ecosystem Environmnet, 251, 244-256.
  • Davidson, P., & Honing, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 20, 121.
  • Dvouletý, O., Gordievskaya, A., & Procházka, D. (2018). Investigating the relationship between entrepreneurship and regional development: Case of developing countries. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 8(1), 16.
  • Dvouletý, O., & Orel, M. (2019). Entrepreneurial Activity and Its Determinants: Findings from African Developing Countries. In V. Ratten, P. Jones, V. Braga, & C.S. Marques (Eds.), Sustainable Entrepreneurship: The Role of Collaboration in the Global Economy (pp. 9-24). Cham: Springer.
  • Edwards, P. (1997). Sustainable food production through aquaculture. Aquaculture Asia, 2(1), 4-7.
  • Evans, M.D. (1989). Immigrant Entrepreneurship: Effects of Ethnic Market Size and Isolated Labor Pool. American Sociological Review, 54(6), 950-962.
  • FAO. (2004). Fishery Statistics. Yearbook of Aquaculture Production, 94(2), 193.
  • FAO. (2013). Global aquaculture production statistics for the year 2011.
  • FAO. (2015). State of the World fisheries and aquaculture 2015. Rome.
  • FAO. (2017). The state of food and agriculture leveraging food systems for inclusive rural transformation. Rome: FAO.
  • Frese, M., & de Kruif, M. (2000). Psychological success factors of entrepreneurship in Africa: A selective literature review. In Success and failure of microbusiness owners in Africa. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
  • Frimpong, S.K., & Adwani, A. (2015). The challenges and prospects of fish farming in Ghana: A Project Management perspective. International Journal of ICT and Management, 3(2), 29-34.
  • George, G., Kotha, R., Parikh, Alnuaimi, T., & Bahaj, A. (2016). Social structure, reasonable gain, and entrepreneurship in Africa. Strategic Management Journal, 37(6), 1118-1131.
  • Goddek, S., Delaide, B., Mankasingh, U., Ragnarsdottir, K., Jijakli, H., & Thorarinsdottir, R. (2015). Challenges of sustainable and commercial aquaponics. Sustainability, 7, 4199-4224.
  • Goddek, S., Joyce, A., Kotzen, B., & Burnell, M. (2019). Aquaponics Food Production Systems Combined Aquaculture and Hydroponic: Production Technologies for the Future Funded. In S. Milliken & H. Stander (Eds.), Aquaponics and Social Enterprise. Cham: Springer.
  • Goddek, S., & Keesman, K. (2018). The necessity of desalination technology for designing and sizing multi-loop aquaponics systems. Desalination, 428, 76-85.
  • Godfray, H.C.J., Beddington, J.R., Crute, I.R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J.F., Pretty, J., Robinson, S., Thomas, S.M., & Toulmin, C. (2010). Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science, 327, 812-818.
  • Håstein, T.B., Hjeltnes, A., Lillehaug, J., Skåre, U., Berntssen, M., & Lundebye, A. (2006). Food safety hazards that occur during the production stage: challenges for fish farming and the fishing industry. Review Science Technology, 25(2), 607-625.
  • Holtz-Eakin, D., Joulfaian, D., & Rosen, H. (1994). Sticking it out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints. Journal of Political Economy, 1, 102.
  • Hurst, E., & Lusardi, A. (2004). Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, Entrepreneurship. Journal of Political Economy, 2, 112.
  • Ibemere, I.F., & Ezeano, N. (2014). Status of fish farming in Rivers state, Nigeria. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 9(5), 321-329.
  • Ifejika, P.I., Oladosu, I.O., Asadu, A.N., Ayanwuyi, E., Sule, A.M., & Tanko, M. (2015). Assessment of aquapreneur willingness to pay for mobile phone advisory services in anambra state, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 5(6), 330-338.
  • Ifejika, P. (2015). Assessment of fish farmers' information behaviour towards mobile phone innovative platform services in selected states of Nigeria. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State.
  • IUCN. (2007). The advantages and disadvantages of culturing fish. Retrieved from on July 12, 2017.
  • Junge, R., König, B., Villarroel, M., Komives, T., & Jijakli, M. (2017). Strategic points in aquaponics. Water, 9, 182.
  • Khan, M.A., Khan, S., & Miyan, K. (2011). Aquaculture as a food production system: A review. Biology and Medicine, 3(2), 291-302.
  • Kiggundu, M. (2002). Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa: What is known and what needs to be done. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(3), 239.
  • Kim, P, Aldrich, H.E., & Keister, L. (2003). Access (not) denied: The Impact of financial, human and cultural capital on becoming a Nascent Entrepreneur (635-378 No. 1). New York.
  • Kloas, W, Groß, R, Baganz, D, Graupner, J, Monsees, H, Schmidt, U, Staaks, G, Suhl, J, Tschirner, M, Wittstock, B, Wuertz, S, Zikova, A., & Rennert, B. (2015). A new concept for aquaponic systems to improve sustainability, increase productivity, and reduce environmental impacts. Aquacuture Environment Interaction, 7, 179-192.
  • Kshetri, N. (2011). Institutional and economic foundations of entrepreneurship in Africa: An overview. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 16(1), 9-35.
  • Kuada, J. (2015). Entrepreneurship in Africa - A classificatory framework and a research agenda. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 6(2), 148-163.
  • Lashitew, A.A., & van Tulder, R. (2017). Inclusive business in Africa: Priorities, strategies and challenges. Entrepreneurship in Africa, 15, 71.
  • Lehane, S. (2013). Fish for the future: aquaculture and food security. Strategic analysis paper, Future Directions International. Retrieved from (tu wstawić podaną stronę http) on July 12, 2017.
  • Mathews, J. (2002). A Resource-Based View of Schumpeterian economic dynamics. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 12(1/2), 29-55.
  • Miller, J.W., & Atanda, T. (2010). The rise of peri-urban aquaculture in Nigeria. In The 25th annual conference of Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON). ASCON Badagry, Lagos State: FISON.
  • Milliken, S., & Stander, H. (2019). Aquaponics and Social Enterprise. In Aquaponics Food Production Systems (pp. 607-619). Switzerland AG: Springer.
  • Mohtasham, J. (2015). Review Article-Renewable Energies. Energy Procedia, 74(2015), 1289-1297.
  • Munemo, J. (2012). Entrepreneurship in developing countries: Is Africa different? Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 17(1), 1250004.
  • Mwangi, H. (2008). Aquaculture in Kenya, Status Challenges and Opportunities. Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Ndah, H.T., Knierim, A., & Ndambi, O. (2011). Fish pond aquaculture in Cameroon: A field survey of determinants for farmers' adoption behaviour. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 17(4), 309-323.
  • Ngota, B.L., Rajkaran, S., Balkaran, S., & Mang'unyi, E. (2018). Factors impeding African immigrant entrepreneurs' progression in selected small and medium enterprises: Evidence from a local municipality in South Africa. South African Journal of Business Management, 49(1), 1-9.
  • OECD. (2010). Barriers to fish farming Development as a Pathway to Poverty Alleviation and Food Security. Retrieved from Africa 2013 Overview FINAL.pdf on July 18, 2016.
  • Okoronkwo, M.O., & Ume, S. (2013). Evaluation of the socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of catfish production technologies in Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 16(1), 1425-1430.
  • Osure, G. (2011). Introduction to Aquaculture. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 33(1), 3-7.
  • Oyase, A., & Jemerigbe, R. (2016). Contribution of aquaculture to poverty reduction and food security in Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 4, 26-31.
  • Penrose, E. (1959). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Pouomogne, V., Brummett, E.R., & Gatchouko, M. (2010). Impacts of aquaculture development projects in Western Cameroon. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 22(3), 93-108.
  • Pouomogne, V., & Pemsl, D. (2008). Country Case Study: Development and Status of Freshwater Aquaculture in Cameroon. Yaounde.
  • Ratten, V., & Jones, P. (2018). Bringing Africa into entrepreneurship research. In African Entrepreneurship. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Rey, S. (2018, December 3). How Africa wins through design-centered and learned entrepreneurship. Business Report, pp. 1-2. Retrieved from on March 18, 2019.
  • Röschenthaler, U., & Schulz, D. (2015). Cultural entrepreneurship in Africa. London: Routledge.
  • Sanusi, S.M., & Danasabe, K. (2015). Problems' and prospects of small -scale fish farming in Minna Agricultural Zone of Niger State, Nigeria, and its implications on increased fish food security. International Journal of Agricultural Research and Review, 3(2), 157-160.
  • Shane, S.A., & Eckhardt, J. (2003). The individual-opportunity nexus. Handbook of entrepreneurship research: An interdisciplinary survey and introduction. In Z.J. Acs and D.B. Audretsch (Ed.). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Shitote, Z., Wakhungu, J., & China, S. (2012). Challenges facing fish farming development in Western Kenya. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(5), 305-311.
  • Somerville, C., Cohen, M., Pantanella, E., Stankus, A., & Lovatelli, A. (2014). Small-scale aquaponic food production. Integrated fish and plant farming (No. 589). Rome.
  • Sriram, V., & Mersha, T. (2010). Stimulating entrepreneurship in Africa. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 6(4), 257-272.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.