Factors Influencing Uber Adoption in Bangladesh and Pakistan
The paper's intention is to investigate the behavioral intentions of consumers towards the adoption of Uber with focus on effects of digitalization and shared economy on the adoption of Uber. The aim of the article is to examine the cultural factors of Bangladesh and Pakistan, which are leading people towards adopotion of non traditional source of transport. Particularly, these countries' comparison was not done before by other researchers. Theory of Planned Behavior integrated with Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions has been used to examine the Behavioral Intention of customers of these two countries towards adoption of Uber in the research. A great comparison was done in the study by using factors of TAM, TPB and Hofstede Cultural Models. Dependent variables played important roles in showing positive and negative attitudes on independent variables. This article's findings show that "Risk" negatively affects the Behavioral Intention. Research data is collected through online close-ended questionnaires from 145 total respondents, which limits the generalization of the study. At the end, where it identified "female" as a bigger market and provided an opportunity for Uber to categorize the risks prevalent in the society and define new strategies by adapting to the local culture by being a global company. Factors examination produced a great findings which created recommendations for future researchers followed by a conclusion. (original abstract)
- AGU, B. O., Enugu, U. N., & Onuka, I. (2016). Mobile banking-adoption and challenges in Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Social Sciences & Humanities Research, 4(1), 17-27.
- Agyeman, J., McLaren, D., & Schaefer-Borrego, A. (2013). Sharing cities. Friends of the Earth Briefing, 1-32.
- Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior Action control (pp. 11-39): Springer.
- Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.
- Al-Gahtani, S. S., Hubona, G. S., & Wang, J. (2007). Information technology (IT) in Saudi Arabia: Culture and the acceptance and use of IT. Information & management, 44(8), 681-691.
- Amaro, S., & Duarte, P. (2013). Online travel purchasing: A literature review. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(8), 755-785.
- Anbari, F., Khilkhanova, E., Romanova, M., & Umpleby, S. (2003). Cross cultural differences and their implications for managing international projects. Retrived from http://www.gwu.edu/~umpleby/recent_papers/2003_cross_cultural_differences_managin_international_projects_anbari_khilkhanova_romanova_umpleby.htm.
- Ardichvili, A., Maurer, M., Li, W., Wentling, T., & Stuedemann, R. (2006). Cultural influences on knowledge sharing through online communities of practice. Journal of knowledge management, 10(1), 94-107.
- Bandyopadhyay, K., & Fraccastoro, K. A. (2007). The effect of culture on user acceptance of information technology. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 19(1), 522-543.
- Bank, T. W. (2016). Bangladesh: Improving Transport Lifelines. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/results/2016/10/07/improving-bangladeshs-transport-lifelines
- Berger, T., Chen, C., & Frey, C. B. (2018). Drivers of disruption? Estimating the Uber effect. European Economic Review, 110, 197-210.
- Berman, S. J. (2012). Digital transformation: opportunities to create new business models. Strategy & Leadership, 40(2), 16-24.
- Briggs, S. R., & Cheek, J. M. (1986). The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales. Journal of personality, 54(1), 106-148.
- Calantone, R. J., Griffith, D. A., & Yalcinkaya, G. (2006). An empirical examination of a technology adoption model for the context of China. Journal of International Marketing, 14(4), 1-27.
- Choi, J., & Geistfeld, L. V. (2004). A cross-cultural investigation of consumer e-shopping adoption. Journal of Economic Psychology, 25(6), 821-838.
- Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical assessment, research & evaluation, 10(7), 1-9.
- Cusumano, M. A. (2015). How traditional firms must compete in the sharing economy. Communications of the ACM, 58(1), 32-34.
- Dash, S. B., & Guin, K. K. Indian Context and Its Policy Implications on Consumer Behavior Research.
- Davis, F. D. (1985). A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: Theory and results. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Davis, F. D. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: system characteristics, user perceptions and behavioral impacts. International journal of man-machine studies, 38(3), 475-487.
- Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Management science, 35(8), 982-1003.
- Doney, P. M., & Cannon, J. P. (1997). An examination of the nature of trust in buyer-seller relationships. The Journal of Marketing, 61(2), 35-51.
- Ert, E., Fleischer, A., & Magen, N. (2016). Trust and reputation in the sharing economy: The role of personal photos in Airbnb. Tourism Management, 55, 62-73.
- Feeney, M., & companies Uber, R. (2015). Is Ridesharing Safe?
- Ford, D. P., Connelly, C. E., & Meister, D. B. (2003). Information systems research and Hofstede's culture's consequences: an uneasy and incomplete partnership. IEEE Transactions on Engineering management, 50(1), 8-25.
- Frenken, K., & Schor, J. (2017). Putting the sharing economy into perspective. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 23, 3-10.
- George, J. F. (2004). The theory of planned behavior and Internet purchasing. Internet research, 14(3), 198-212.
- Glavee-Geo, R., Shaikh, A. A., & Karjaluoto, H. (2017). Mobile banking services adoption in Pakistan: are there gender differences? International Journal of Bank Marketing, 35(7), 1090-1114.
- Gong, W., Li, Z. G., & Stump, R. L. (2007). Global internet use and access: cultural considerations. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 19(1), 57-74.
- Grunig, J. E. (2009). Paradigms of global public relations in an age of digitalisation. PRism, 6(2), 1-19.
- Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance.
- Heinz, M. (2013). Exploring predictors of technology adoption among older adults. Iowa State University.
- Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: do American theories apply abroad? Organizational dynamics, 9(1), 42-63.
- Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online readings in psychology and culture, 2(1), 8.
- Hofstede, G., & Bond, M. H. (1988). The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational dynamics, 16(4), 5-21.
- Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Articles, 2.
- Hox, J. J., & Boeije, H. R. (2005). Data collection, primary versus secondary.
- Hulstijn, J. H., & Laufer, B. (2001). Some empirical evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition. Language learning, 51(3), 539-558.
- Jain, V., & Kothari, R. (2004). Automatic validation of survey results: Google Patents.
- Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches: Sage.
- Jose Luis Irigoyen, H. D. (2014). Five Opportunities for 21st-Century Transport. Retrieved from http://blogs.worldbank.org/transport/five-opportunities-21st-century-transport
- Kamal, P., & Chen, J. Q. (2016). Trust in Sharing Economy. Paper presented at the PACIS.
- Kim, D. J., Ferrin, D. L., & Rao, H. R. (2008). A trust-based consumer decision-making model in electronic commerce: The role of trust, perceived risk, and their antecedents. Decision support systems, 44(2), 544-564.
- Laukkanen, T. (2015). How uncertainty avoidance affects innovation resistance in mobile banking: The moderating role of age and gender. Paper presented at the System Sciences (HICSS), 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on.
- Lee, M.-C. (2009). Factors influencing the adoption of internet banking: An integration of TAM and TPB with perceived risk and perceived benefit. Electronic commerce research and applications, 8(3), 130-141.
- Legris, P., Ingham, J., & Collerette, P. (2003). Why do people use information technology? A critical review of the technology acceptance model. Information & management, 40(3), 191-204.
- Li, B., Krushinsky, D., Reijers, H. A., & Van Woensel, T. (2014). The share-a-ride problem: People and parcels sharing taxis. European Journal of Operational Research, 238(1), 31-40.
- Lieber, R. (2015, April 10, 2015). Questions About Airbnb's Responsibility After Attack by Dog. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/11/your-money/questions-about-airbnbs-responsibility-after-vicious-attack-by-dog.html
- Liu, B. S.-C., Furrer, O., & Sudharshan, D. (2001). The relationships between culture and behavioral intentions toward services. Journal of service research, 4(2), 118-129.
- Luoma-aho, V. (2015). Understanding stakeholder engagement: Faith-holders, hateholders & fakeholders. RJ-IPR: Research Journal of the Institute for Public Relations, 2(1).
- Makongoro, G. (2014). Factors Influencing Customer Adoption of Mobile Banking Services in Tanzania. The Open University of Tanzania.
- Manjoo, F. (2014). With Uber, less reason to own a car. New York Times, 1-4.
- Mathieson, K. (1991). Predicting user intentions: comparing the technology acceptance model with the theory of planned behavior. Information systems research, 2(3), 173-191.
- McCoy, S., Everard, A., & Jones, B. M. (2005). An examination of the technology acceptance model in Uruguay and the US: a focus on culture. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 8(2), 27-45.
- Moon, J., Chadee, D., & Tikoo, S. (2008). Culture, product type, and price influences on consumer purchase intention to buy personalized products online. Journal of Business Research, 61(1), 31-39.
- Mun, Y. Y., & Hwang, Y. (2003). Predicting the use of web-based information systems: self-efficacy, enjoyment, learning goal orientation, and the technology acceptance model. International journal of human-computer studies, 59(4), 431-449.
- Munđar, D., Matotek, D., & Jakuš, M. Quantitative research methods participation in the information sciences papers in Croatia.
- Myers, M. D. (1997). Qualitative research in information systems. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 21(2), 241-242.
- Ngai, E. W., Heung, V. C., Wong, Y., & Chan, F. K. (2007). Consumer complaint behaviour of Asians and non-Asians about hotel services: an empirical analysis. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1375-1391.
- Nunnally, J. (1978). C.(1978). Psychometric theory, 2.
- Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
- Pavlou, P. A., & Chai, L. (2002). What drives electronic commerce across cultures? Across-cultural empirical investigation of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 3(4), 240-253.
- Pavlou, P. A., & Fygenson, M. (2006). Understanding and predicting electronic commerce adoption: An extension of the theory of planned behavior. MIS quarterly, 115-143.
- Picard, R. G. (2000). Changing business models of online content services: Their implications for multimedia and other content producers. International Journal on Media Management, 2(2), 60-68.
- Pookulangara, S., & Koesler, K. (2011). Cultural influence on consumers' usage of social networks and its' impact on online purchase intentions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18(4), 348-354.
- Puriwat, W., & Tripopsakul, S. (2017). Mobile Banking Adoption in Thailand: An Integration of Technology Acceptance Model and Mobile Service Quality. European Research Studies, 20(4B), 200-210.
- Quintal, V. A., Lee, J. A., & Soutar, G. N. (2010). Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: A tourism example. Tourism Management, 31(6), 797-805.
- Rahm, E., & Do, H. H. (2000). Data cleaning: Problems and current approaches. IEEE Data Eng. Bull., 23(4), 3-13.
- Ramayah, T., & Ignatius, J. (2005). Impact of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment on intention to shop online. ICFAI Journal of Systems Management (IJSM), 3(3), 36-51.
- Routhier Perry, S. (2014). Digitization and Digital Preservation: A Review of the Literature. School of Information Student Research Journal, 4(1), 4.
- Satama, S. (2014). Consumer adoption of access-based consumption services-Case AirBnB.
- Schor, J. (2016). Debating the Sharing Economy. Journal of Self-Governance & Management Economics, 4(3).
- Shaikh, A. A., Glavee-Geo, R., & Karjaluoto, H. (2018). How relevant are risk perceptions, effort, and performance expectancy in mobile banking adoption? International Journal of E-Business Research (IJEBR), 14(2), 39-60.
- Sharma, S., Durand, R. M., & Gur-Arie, O. (1981). Identification and analysis of moderator variables. Journal of marketing research, 291-300.
- Smith, S. M., & Albaum, G. (2012). Basic Marketing Research: Volume 1. Handbook for Research Professionals. Provo: Qualtrics Labs Inc.
- Steenkamp, J.-B. E., Hofstede, F. t., & Wedel, M. (1999). A cross-national investigation into the individual and national cultural antecedents of consumer innovativeness. The Journal of Marketing, 55-69.
- Steers, R. M., Meyer, A. D., & Sanchez-Runde, C. J. (2008). National culture and the adoption of new technologies. Journal of World Business, 43(3), 255-260.
- Straub, D., Keil, M., & Brenner, W. (1997). Testing the technology acceptance model across cultures: A three country study. Information & management, 33(1), 1-11.
- Streiner, D. L., Norman, G. R., & Cairney, J. (2015). Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use: Oxford University Press, USA.
- Syed, H., & Malik, A. N. (2014). Comparative study of effect of culture on technology adoption in Pakistan and USA. The Business & Management Review, 5(1), 42.
- Tapscott, D. (1996). The digital economy: Promise and peril in the age of networked intelligence (Vol. 1): McGraw-Hill New York.
- Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., & Hui, C. H. (1990). Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism. Journal of personality and social psychology, 59(5), 1006.
- Van den Bergh, J. C., Truffer, B., & Kallis, G. (2011). Environmental innovation and societal transitions: Introduction and overview. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 1(1), 1-23.
- Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management science, 46(2), 186-204.
- Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., & Ackerman, P. L. (2000). A longitudinal field investigation of gender differences in individual technology adoption decision-making processes. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 83(1), 33-60.
- Wallsten, S. (2015). The competitive effects of the sharing economy: how is Uber changing taxis. Technology Policy Institute, 22.
- Yıldırım, E., Arslan, Y., & Barutçu, M. T. (2016). The Role of Uncertainty Avoidance and Indulgence as Cultural Dimensions on Online Shopping Expenditure.
- Yu, C.-S. (2012). Factors affecting individuals to adopt mobile banking: Empirical evidence from the UTAUT model. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 13(2), 104.
- Zakour, A. B. (2004). Cultural differences and information technology acceptance. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 7th annual conference of the Southern association for information systems.
- Zárraga, C., & Bonache, J. (2003). Assessing the team environment for knowledge sharing: an empirical analysis. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(7), 1227-1245.
- Zekanovic-Korona, L., & Grzunov, J. (2014). Evaluation of shared digital economy adoption: Case of Airbnb. Paper presented at the Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO), 2014 37th International Convention on.
- Zhang, Y., Guo, H., Li, C., Wang, W., Jiang, X., & Liu, Y. (2016). Which one is more attractive to traveler, taxi or tailored taxi? An empirical study in China.