Clean Air Policy in European Marine Ports
Purpose: The goal of the article is to analyse the tolls and measures of emission control in port areas and to build a Clean Air Policy action model for marine and inland shipping ports, which would constitute a universal framework for building and conducting the Clean Air Policy in port areas. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on data from reports and studies concerning the impact of port-generated emissions on air quality in the port areas. Legal framework for Air Quality Control in Marine Shipping is analysed. Examples of actions and policy measures in European ports are listed. Findings: Port areas and the processes inside them generate airborne pollution from various sources with vehicles, ships and port machinery being the main ones. Air pollution is one of the factors influencing ports' natural environment and a cause of many health hazards to local residents. Ports are usually located in urban areas or close to city centres, and thus the environmental impact of air pollution is significant. Some ports have decided to voluntarily implement programs directed to measure and reduce the level of port emissions, but there is little business interest in general for the ports to reduce emissions and energy consumption. Numerous workshops aimed to improve air quality in ports in Europe were held in port cities, resulting in best practices and projects aimed at reducing port emissions. However there is still no standard activity framework for Clean Air Policy in European ports. Action model presented in the article may be used for building and conducting the Clean Air Policy in port areas. Research limitations/implications: Action model presented in the article constitutes a universal framework for building and conducting the Clean Air Policy in port areas. However the model constitutes a universal base, and in any case the specificity of the port must be taken into account, e.g. geographical factors, size and specialization of the port, type of machinery and equipment used, other pollution sources, proximity to urban areas. Practical implications: The results may be a factor to influence ports' Corporate Social Responsibility measures, directed to improve the quality of life in the ports' neighbouring areas. Social implications: It is important to address the problem of port-generated air pollution for urban zones to limit its influence on quality of life in the neighbouring areas. Originality/value: A universal approach to creating Clean Air Policy action model for marine ports is presented. (original abstract)
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