Determinants of foreign direct investment outflow from India to Poland
This article concerns the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) outflow from India to Poland with some insights to other European countries. This topic strongly relates to globalization of foreign trade and especially new economic initiatives between European Union (EU) and India, which was one of the first countries to develop trade relations with EU. According to CEIC data - Financial Data and Economic Indicators, India's FDI outflow increased slightly to 1.4 billion USD in September 2019 in comparison with 996.5 million USD in September 2018, but it is still below the average of 1.8 billion USD for a period of 2007-2019.1 Very limited number of the scientific research can be found in European literature about India's FDI outflow to EU countries in period of 2004-2019. Indian economists made some research on that topic. Professor J. Ramachandran (listed among the Best Management Thinkers for the year 2015, the first Bain Fellow in India) from Indian Institute of Management Bangalore in 2004 and Professor Jaya Prakesh Pradhan from Central University of Gujarat in 2008 explored the evolution in Indian outward FDI, referring to a shift in the pattern of overseas expansion and basis of competitiveness of Indian companies. The main goal of this article is to explain what really triggers Indian investors to go to Poland and what kind of businesses they form. Some examples of the Indian-based companies are mentioned to support the analysis. The author of this article also researched on different governmental bilateral trade agreements and initiatives, trying to find any direct impacts of that on the India FDI outflow to Poland and other EU countries. He used empirical method of the analysis based on accessible data for period 2004-2019 and literature in that topic and also direct interviews with private Indian investors who made decision to start and run their business in Poland or other EU countries. The main conclusion is that Poland the leader of Visegrad Group is an interesting investment for India and India can be for Poland a counterpart investment partner to China.(original abstract)
- Aliber, R.Z. (1970), A theory of direct foreign investment, in: C.P. Kindleberger, (Eds), The international corporation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 17-34.
- Alfaro, L. (2003), Foreign direct investment and growth: does the sector matter? Harvard Business School, USA.
- Baker, D.C., Diggs, H.T. (1956), A monthly inventory of information from U.S. Government Foreign Service Offices and other sources that may not otherwise be made available promptly, United States, US Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Division of Minerals, Trade Mineral Notes, III. Miscellaneous Information. India- Poland (Trade and Technical Assistance Agreement), Vol. 43, No. 1, p. 40.
- Borensztein, E., De Gregorio, J., Lee, J.W. (1998), How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth? Journal of International Economics, Vol. 45, pp. 115-135.
- Blomstrom, M., Lipsey, R., Zegan, M. (1994), What explains developing country growth? NBER Working Paper No. 4132, National Bureau for Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
- Caves, R.E. (1996), Multinational enterprise and economic analysis, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Charlie, A. (2012), Indian companies in the European Union, Europe India Chamber of Commerce, Brussels.
- Cushman, D.O. (1985), Real exchange rate risk, expectations and the level of direct investment, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 67, No. 2, pp. 297-308.
- Denisia, V. (2010), Foreign direct investment theories: an overview of the main FDI theories, Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2 , pp. 104-109.
- Dunning, J.H. (1977), Trade, location of economic activity and the MNE: A search for an Eclectic approach, in: Olhin et al. (Eds), The international allocation of economic activity, The Nobel Foundation, pp. 395-418.
- Dunning, J.H. (1979), Toward an eclectic theory of international production: some empirical tests, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 9-31.
- Dunning, J.H. (1988), The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1(Spring), pp. 1-31.
- Charlie, A. (2012), Europe India Chamber of Commerce (EICC), Overseas Direct Investment, Indian Companies in European Union, Reigniting Economic Growth, Brussels, Belgium.
- European Commission (2018), Joint communication: elements for an EU strategy on India, 20 November, retrieved from https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/india/54057/joint-communication-elements-eu-strategy-india_en [19th October 2019].
- Ewe-Ghee, L. (2001), Determinants of, and the relation between, foreign direct investment and growth: a summary of the recent literature, IMF Working Paper, WP/01/175.
- Findlay, R. (1978), Relative backwardness, direct foreign investment, and the transfer of technology: a simple dynamic model, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 92, No. 1, pp. 1-16.
- Gorg, H., Greenaway, D. (2002), Much Ado about nothing? Do domestic firms really benefit from foreign direct investment?Research Paper 2001/37, Globalisation and Labour Markets Programme, at Leverhulme Centre for Research on Globalisation and Economic Policy, Nottingham.
- Hanson, G. (2001), Should countries promote foreign direct investment? G-24 Discussion Papers 9, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
- Hennart, J.F. (1982), A theory of multinational enterprise, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
- Hirschman, A.O. (1958), The strategy of economic development, Yale University Press, New Haven.
- Kindleberger, C.P. (1969), American business abroad, The International Executive, Vol. 11, pp. 11-12.
- Klein, K. (1995), General motors in Hungary: the corporate strategy behind Szentgotthard, Georgetown University, Pew Economic Freedom Fellows Program, Washington.
- Kokko, A. (1994), Technology, market characteristics, and spillovers, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 43, pp. 279-293.
- Kokko, A., Tansini, R., Zejan, M. (1996), Local technological capability and spillovers from FDI in the Uruguayan manufacturing sector, Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 34, pp. 602-611.
- Kowalewski, O., Weresa, M.A. (2008), The role of foreign direct investment in the economy, in: Technology transfer through foreign direct investment: the case of Poland, 1st edn, Rainer Hampp Verlag, Munich, pp. 127-143.
- Lall, S. (1980), Vertical interfirm linkages in LDCs: an empirical study, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 42, pp. 203-226.
- Lipsey, R. (2002), Home and host country effects of FDI, Lidingö, Sweden.
- Mansfield, E., Romero, A. (1980), Technology transfer to overseas subsidiaries by U.S.-based firms, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 737-750.
- Moran, T. (1998), Foreign direct investment and development: The new policy agenda for developing countries and economies in transition, Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C.
- Morris, S., Palakh, J. (2016), Determinants of outward FDI: empirical analysis of OECD source countries, retrieved from SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2733040 or doi:10.2139/ssrn.2733040.
- Pradhan, J.P. (2008), The evolution of Indian outward foreign direct investment: changing trends and patterns, International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 70-86.
- Ramachandran, J., Khorakiwala, H.F., Rao, J., Khera, P., Dawar, N., Kalyani, B.N., Karki, R. (2004), Indian companies in overseas markets: perspectives, patterns, and implications, Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 93-111.
- Smarzyńska, B. (2002), Spillovers from foreign direct investment through backward linkages: does technology gap matter?Mimeo, World Bank.
- Porter, M.E. (2011), Competitive advantage of nations: creating and sustaining superior performance, Simon and Schuster, New York (Free Press May 31, 2011).
- Rodrik, D. (1999), The new global economy and developing countries: making openness work, Policy Essay No. 24, Overseas Development Council, Washington, D.C.
- Shapiro, H. (1993), Automobiles: from import substitution to export promotion in Brazil and Mexico, in: D. Yoffie (Ed), Beyond free trade: firms, governments, and global competition, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, pp. 193-250.
- Shatz, H., Venables, A.J. (2000), The geography of international investment, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2338.
- Tolentino, P.E. (2008), The determinants of the outward foreign direct investment of China and India: whither the home country? United Nation University, Maastricht Economic and Social Research and Training Centre on Innovation and Technology, UNU-MERIT, Working Paper Series