Human Rights in the Remnants of a Conflict: Has the Legacy of Dayton Impaired Minority Inclusion in Bosnia-Herzegovina?
More than two decades following the end of civil conflict made possible via Dayton Peace Accords (DPA) instated in 1995, Bosnia-Herzegovina still utilizes this international legal instrument as the sovereign's official constitution. This paper addresses the impact that the international community's failure to implement the appropriate locally considerate solutions needed to sustain peacebuilding has left behind. To this end, the paper highlights the quotidian ways in which the socio-cultural landscape of the Bosnian Federation and Republika Srpska remain stratified along ethno-religious divisions. Directing its' attention on the practical aspects where minorities face discrimination and remain excluded from social spheres the paper calls for a necessary advancement on the human rights protection of safeguarding minority members in both of the country's de-facto territories. In closing, it argues that society's schism from the residual consequences of the DPA can be achieved through the practices of change-drivers taking advantage of their training and capacity-building skills in the forms of: inter-ethnic dialogue, inter-cultural reconciliation and inter-religious peace. Constructing competences which demonstrate respect for human rights, encourage co-existence and the equal integration of minority members in society also bear the potential to strengthen the currently fragile relations with the out-group community, reducing a society's propensity for conflict regression. (original abstract)
- De Luca, C. (2017). Mother tongue as a universal human right. International Journal of Speech Language Pathology, 20(10), 161-65.
- Emkic, E. (2018). Reconciliation and education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
- Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, peace and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167-91.
- Hing, B. (1993). Beyond the rhertoric of assimilation and cultural pluralism: Addressing the tension of separatism and conflict in an immigration-driven multiracial society. California Law Review, 81(4), 863-925.
- Lovic, I. (2017). How the catholic schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina are helping to building interfaith harmony and understanding after years of conflict. International Studies in Catholic Education, 9(2) 192-205.
- MacGinty, R. (2010). Hybrid peace: The interaction between top-down and bottom-up peace. Security Dialogue, 41(4), 391-412.
- Pasalic-Kreso, A. (2002). Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Minority inclusion and majority rules the system of education in BiH as a paradigm of political violence on education. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 2(1), 6-13.
- Peters, M. A., & Besley, T. A. (2014). Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analysis of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and Legitimation of Inclusive Education. Open Review of Educational Research, 1(1), 99-115.
- Popović, M. (2017). Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture. Moscow: Council of Europe. Retrieved from http://new.groteck.ru/images/ catalog/52221/9703c25b354394f9f41a493a0aa74308.pdf (20/9/2018).
- Russo, C. (2000). Religion and education in Bosnia: Integration not segregation?. Brigham Young University Law Journal, 3(12), 945-966.
- The Dayton Peace Accords-Official Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina. (1995). Retrieved from http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/bih136068e.pdf (20/9/2018)
- Tolomelli, A. (2015). Two schools under one roof: The role of education in the reconciliation processes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Journal of Theories and Research in Education, 10(1) 89-107.
- Torsti, P. (2009). Segregated education and texts: A challenge to peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Journal on World Peace, 26(2), 65-82.