A Study of Challenges in Entrepreneurship Development and Potential Role of Public Sector in Mitigating Them - Evidence from Kurdistan Region of Iraq
The purpose of this paper is to identify the main challenges faced by entrepreneurs in the Kurdistan region of Iraq and possible ways that regional public sector can take for the purpose of improving entrepreneurship development. Given the importance of entrepreneurs in the economic development and job creation, it's critical to understand what drives entrepreneurs to become less effective and to investigate how the implementation of "entrepreneurship ecosystem" practiced by public policy makers mitigates these challenges. As a result, authors strive to answers two main questions in this paper: "What are the factors that hold back entrepreneurs in the Kurdistan Region to start their own businesses? "And "What measures the local government can take to mitigate such challenges?" The methodology used in this study is quantitative approach, involving a survey questionnaire. This paper consists of four parts: After the introduction, second part will provide empirical data on challenges facing entrepreneurs in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Discussion and analysis of the findings are done in the third part. Finally, in the last part, paper will offer conclusions by summarizing the key findings. (original abstract)
- Alavi, H. and Hąbek, P., (2016). Optimizing outcome in the university-industry technology transfer projects. Management Systems in Production Engineering, 22(2), pp. 94-100.
- Autio, E. (2017). How can government support entrepreneurs? Retrieved from https://www.imperial.ac.uk/business-school/knowledge/finance/how-can-governmentsupport-entrepreneurs/ [Accessed 20 May 2019]
- Autio, E., Nambisan, S., Thomas, L.D. and Wright, M., (2018). Digital affordances, spatial affordances, and the genesis of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 12(1), pp. 72-95.
- DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ. (2018). UNFPA IOM KRSO. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/KRSO_IOM_UNFPA_Demographic_Survey_Kurdistan_Region_of_Iraq.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2019]
- Din, B.H., Anuar, A.R. and Usman, M., (2016). The effectiveness of the entrepreneurship education program in upgrading entrepreneurial skills among public university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224, pp. 117-123.
- Dinesh, J. (2019), A study of buying decision process in Malls. Malls, Buying Decision Process. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10603/97412 [Accessed 20 May 2019]
- El Mahdi, A., (2002). Towards decent work in the informal sector the case of Egypt (No. 993661433402676). International Labour Organization.
- Farid, M. (2007). Entrepreneurship in Egypt and the US compared: Directions for further research suggested. Journal of Management Development, 26(5), pp. 428-440.
- G, G., Oa, D., Emm, O., & Ks, O. (2017). Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Does Entrepreneurship Bolster Economic Expansion in Africa? Journal of Socialomics, 06(04). doi:10.4172/2167-0358.1000219
- Geldhof, G. J., Johnson, S. K., Weiner, M. B., Hunt, D., & Lerner, R. M. (2016). Youth entrepreneurship. Routledge Handbook of Youth and Young Adulthood, 182.
- Ghalwash, S.N., Ismail, A. and Tolba, A.,(2017). Resource utilisation and innovation in social entrepreneurship. The Business & Management Review, 9(2), pp. 128-128.
- Hermanto, B., & Suryanto, S. E. (2017). Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Policy in Indonesia. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,8(1), 110-115. doi:10.5901/mjss.2017.v8n1p110
- KRG Fact and Figure, 2016 https://investingroup.org/files/The Review Kurdistan Region of Iraq - Issue 10.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2019]
- Mansour, R. and van den Toorn, C., (2018). The 2018 Iraqi federal elections: a population in transition.
- Sabir, D., (2018), Corruption in Kurdistan. Corruption in Kurdistan, 15(1), pp. 12-12.
- Stam, E., & Spigel, B. (2016). Entrepreneurial Ecosystems. Utrecht University School of Economics. Retrieved from file:///Users/shano1/Downloads/rebo_use_dp_2016_1613(5).pdf [Accessed 20 May 2019]
- Sulaimani Forum Policy Roundtable: Fostering Entrepreneurship & Tech Innovation in Iraq. (2018). Retrieved from http://auis.edu.krd/AEI/event/sulaimani-forum-policyroundtable-fostering-entrepreneurship-tech-innovation-iraq [Accessed 20 May 2019]
- The Kurdistan Region of Iraq. (2016). World Bank Group. http://doi.org/10.1596/24706
- United Nations Iraq (2019), Country Profile. Retrieved from http://www.uniraq.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&layout=item&id=941&Itemid=472&lang=en [Accessed 20 May 2019]