Reconfiguration of Geopolitical Strategies in Trump's Era: The Impact of American Political Leadership's Idiosyncrasies on the Traditional Transatlantic Relations
The International System is traversing a challenging stage in its evolution. The United States should carefully consider the risks of an idiosyncratic leadership and closely work with their European partners, securing a world order based on the norms of multilateralism and democracy. Still, the US President Donald Trump unveils an approach based on emotional and synchronous elements. As a matter of consequence, the EU is considering other geopolitical alternatives to accomplish its goals and deliver the best outcome to the people it serves and for global prosperity. The paper investigates the very specific psychological factors influencing Trumpian political thinking and justifying his corresponding foreign policy decision-making processes, in the current transatlantic environment. By contextual examples, the analysis reveals the sensitivities and flaws in applying a subjective, belief-based approach of international (bilateral) relations. We put things into a broader perspective, by analysing the implications of such political behaviour patterns for the international liberal order, in the circumstances of the more and more prominent geopolitical triangle: the EU-China-the US.(original abstract)
- Amaro S., It's'complicated to negotiate with the European Union,' Wilbur Ross says, "CNBC", 17.06.2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/06/17/its-complicatedto-negotiate-with-the-eu-wilbur-ross-says.html (access 21.03.2020).
- Barkin N., Europe's moment of truth with China. 6 factors that will shape the Continent's relationship with Beijing in 2020, "Politico", 13.01.2020, https://www.politico.eu/article/europes-moment-of-truth-with-chinatrade-eu/ (access 13.03.2020).
- Campanale F., Shakun B., Behavioral Idiosyncracies and How They May Affect Investment Decision, "American Association of Individual Investors Journal", vol. XIX, no. 9/1997.
- Ciot M.G., Idiosyncrasies In Trump's Foreign Policy Decision Making, in: Analele Universităţii din Oradea, ed. Mircea Brie, University of Oradea, Oradea 2016.
- Ciot M.G., Negotiation and Foreign Policy Decision-Making, Cambridge Scholars, Newcastle upon Tyne 2014.
- Donnan S., Trump's top trade adviser accuses Germany of currency exploitation, "Financial Times", 31.01.2017, https://www.ft.com/content/57f104d2-e742-11e6-893c-082c54a7f539 (access 21.03.2020).
- Economic And Trade Agreement Between The Government Of The United States Of America And The Government Of The People's Republic Of China, https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/files/agreements/phase one agreement/Economic_And_Trade_Agreement_Between_The_United_States_And_China_Text.pdf (access 15.03.2020).
- Fagen R.R., Calculation and emotion in foreign policy: the Cuban Case, "Journal of Conflict Resolution", vol. VI, no. 3/1962, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002200276200600303.
- Fishel J., Mike Flynn Says He Helped Shape Trump's Views on NATO, "ABC News", 19.11.2016, https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/mike-fl ynn-helpedshape-trumps-views-nato/story?id=43642585 (access 21.03.2020).
- Garber J., Langford J., Europe has 'sense of panic' over securing US trade deal: Wilbur Ross, "Fox Business", 23.01.2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2176-1507.v21i1p03-11.
- Ghidiu I.A., Reinventarea Drumului Mătăsii, "Economistul", 28.09.2016, https://www.economistul.ro/cover/reinventarea-drumului-matasii-733/ (access 13.03.2020).
- Hofman B., Commentary: Why China signed an unequal trade deal with the US, "ChannelNewsAsia", 14.02.2020, https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/commentary/china-us-trade-war-deal-agreement-phase-1-2-tariff-coronavirus-12417824 (access 15.03.2020).
- Hogan P., Refreshing Transatlantic Trade Relations, Keynote Address at Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Washington DC, 16.01.2020, http://ec.europa.eu/commission/commissioners/2019-2024/hogan/announcements/refreshing-transatlantic-relationskeynote-address-commissioner-phil-hogan-centre-strategic-and_en (access 12.01.2020).
- Jackson R., Sorensen G., Introduction to International Relations. Theories and approaches, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2007.
- Kaplan T., Kudlow: Phase One of China trade deal is 'historic' and will help US economy grow faster, "Fox News", 15.01.2020, https://www.foxnews.com/media/larry-kudlow-china-trade-deal-defends-american-economy (access 21.03.2020).
- Karnitschnig M., Donald Trump leaves Europe in the cold, "Politico", 20.01.2017, http://www.politico.eu/article/donald-trump-leaves-europein-the-cold-in-inauguration/ (access 14.03.2020).
- Karnitschnig M., Europe turns deaf ear to US warnings on Chinese 5G. Washington warns its allies that Huawei is a Trojan horse for Beijing's expansion plans, "Politico", 15.02.2020, https://www.politico.eu/article/u-s-chides-europe-on-china-tech-risks/ (access 13.03.2020).
- Kowert P.A., Groupthink or Deadlock: When Do Leaders Learn from Their Advisors?, State University of New York Press, Albany, NY 2002.
- Lucas J., U.S. President Donald Trump on his decision-making process: "I don't think about it", "The Georgia Straight", 19.11.2018, https://www.straight.com/news/1166066/us-president-donald-trump-his-decisionmaking-process-i-dont-think-about-it (access 21.03.2020).
- McAdams D.P., The Mind of Donald Trump, "The Atlantic", 2016, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/06/the-mind-of-donaldtrump/480771/ (access 14.03.2020).
- Meltzer J.P., Shenai N., Why the purchase commitments in the US-China trade deal should not be replicated, ever, "Brookings Report", 4.02.2020, http://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2020/02/04/why-the-purchasecommitments-in-the-us-china-trade-deal-should-not-be-replicatedever (access 15.03.2020).
- Noack R., Now that Trump has a trade deal with China, some Europeans fear he will focus his trade threats on them, "Washington Post", 17.01.2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2020/01/17/now-that-trump-has-trade-deal-with-china-some-europeans-fear-he-will-focus-histrade-threats-them/ (access 14.03.2020).
- Owen D., Hubris, the road to Donald Trump. Power, populism and narcissism, Mehuen, York 2018.
- Panda A., Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Implies US Military Brought Coronavirus to Wuhan, "The Diplomat", 13.03.2020, https://thediplomat.com/2020/03/chinese-foreign-ministry-spokesperson-implies-usmilitary-brought-coronavirus-to-wuhan/ (access 15.03.2020).
- Preston T., The President and His Inner Circle: Leadership Style and the Advisory Process in Foreign Affairs, Columbia University Press, New York 2001, DOI: https://doi.org/10.7312/pres11620.
- Rappeport A., Swanson A., Peter Navarro, Trump's Trade Warrior, Has Not Made His Peace With China, "The New York Times", 26.12.2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2176-1507.v21i1p03-11.
- Rios B., Von der Leyen and Trump fine tune transatlantic relations in Davos, "Euractiv", 21.01.2020, https://www.euractiv.com/section/economyjobs/news/von-der-leyen-and-trump-fine-tune-transatlantic-relationsin-davos/ (access 12.03.2020).
- Shalal A., Lawder D., As Trump takes aim at EU trade, European officials brace for fight, "Reuters", 11.02.2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/ususa-trade-europe-analysis/as-trump-takes-aim-at-eu-trade-europeanoffi cials-brace-for-fi ght-idUSKBN2051AK (access 12.03.2020).
- Skala-Kuhmann A., European Responses to BRI. An overdue assessment, "Horizons-Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development", no. 14/2019.
- Soendergaard L., Robbie G.M., China Casts Itself as Global Savior While U.S. and EU Focus on Virus at Home, "Foreign Policy", 19.03.2020, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/19/china-us-eu-coronavirus-greatpower-competition/ (access 20.03.2020).
- Trump D.J., Great Again: How to Fix Our Crippled America, Threshold Editions, Reprint edition, 2016.