Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2023 | 9 | nr 1 | 43--60
Tytuł artykułu

The Impact of Renewable Energy Sources on Generating Jobs: the Case of Poland

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Objective: The aim of the article is to identify and assess the impact of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) on job creation. Research Design & Methods: The study offers an overview of an empirical nature. A review of pertinent literature allows the author to identify, classify, and summarize the most recent scientific reports, both theoretical and empirical, with regard to that particular area of enquiry. Relying on the methodology of systematic literature review, it has been possible to distinguish a database of scientific studies (Scopus, Research Gate, and Google Scholar databases) and studies-reports by, e.g. ILO, IRENA, REN21, EurObserv'ER, Eurostat and Statistics Poland; most applicable studies were subsequently selected to be analysed and verified in terms of their usefulness for further research. The empirical part of the article includes tabulated figures showing employment changes for particular RES technologies and by means of three basic parameters, it illustrates the condition of the labour market in Poland. The strength and direction of the relationship between the analysed variables were computed using Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Findings: A review and study of relevant literature yielded synthetic knowledge concerning the impact of renewable energy sources on job creation. The research demonstrated a positive correlation between the number of employed in RES and the activity rate, as well as the employment rate while displaying a negative correlation with the unemployment rate. Implications & Recommendations: Using up-to-date assessments of job opportunities resulting from the energy transition should inspire politicians and energy sector managers to develop integrated energy, environmental, and labour market policies aimed at sustainable development and job creation in the green economy. Contribution & Value Added: A critical review of the literature on the subject and the presented results of empirical research enrich knowledge on the impact of renewable energy on employment and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Updated knowledge allows for a better understanding of the relationship between employment and national renewable energy policy. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
  • 1. Allan, G., McGregor, P., & Swales, K. (2017). Greening regional development: employment in low-carbon and renewable energy activities. Regional Studies, 51(8), 1-11.
  • 2. Apergis, N., & Salim, R. (2015). Renewable Energy Consumption and Unemployment: Evidence from a Sample of 80 Countries and Nonlinear Estimates. Applied Economics, 47(52), 5614-5633.
  • 3. Bohlmann, H.R., Horridge, J.M., Inglesi-Lotz, R., Roos, E.L., & Stander, L. (2019). Regional Employment and Economic Growth Effects of South Africa's Transition to Low-Carbon Energy Supply Mix. Energy Policy, 128, 830-837.
  • 4. Bukowski, M., & Śniegocki, A. (2015). Wpływ energetyki wiatrowej na polski rynek pracy. Warszawski Instytut Studiów Ekonomicznych. Retrieved from on December 6, 2021.
  • 5. Engel, H., Purta, M., Speelman, E., Szarek, G., & Van der Pluijm, P. (2020). Neutralna emisyjnie Polska 2050. Jak wyzwanie zmienić w szansę. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from on December 11, 2021.
  • 6. European Commission (2010). Europe 2020. A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. COM(2010) 2020, 4. Brussels. Retrieved from on December 18, 2021.
  • 7. European Commission (2019). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. The European Green Deal. COM(2019), 640 final, Brussels. Retrieved from on December 18, 2021.
  • 8. European Commission (2021a). "Fit for 55": delivering the EU's 2030 Climate Target on the way to climate neutrality. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. COM(2021), 550 final, 9-11, Brussels. Retrieved from on December 11, 2021.
  • 9. European Commission (2021b). Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council. COM(2021), 557 final, Brussels. Retrieved from on December 18, 2021.
  • 10. Firoiu, D., Ionescu, G.H., Pîrvu, R., Cismas, L.M., Tudor, S., & Patrichi, I.C. (2021). Dynamics of Implementation of SDG 7 Targets in EU Member States 5 Years after the Adoption of the Paris Agreement. Sustainability, 13(15), 8284.
  • 11. Garrett-Peltier, H. (2017). Green versus brown: Comparing the employment impacts of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and fossil fuels using an input-output model. Economic Modelling, 61, 439-447.
  • 12. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (2019). Gospodarka paliwowo-energetyczna w latach 2017 i 2018.
  • 13. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (2021). Rocznik Statystyczny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej.
  • 14. Grafakos, S., Senshaw, D.A., Quezada, D., & Toro, A. (2020). Employment assessment of renewable energy: Power sector pathways compatible with NDCs and national energy plans. Global Green Growth Institute. Retrieved from on December 6, 2021.
  • 15. He, J., Yang, Y., Liao, Z., Xu, A., & Kai Fang, K. (2022). Linking SDG 7 to assess the renewable energy footprint of nations by 2030. Applied Energy, 317, 119167.
  • 16. International Energy Agency (2020). Tracking Power 2020. Retrieved from on December 16, 2021.
  • 17. ILO (2018) World Employment Social Outlook 2018: Greening with Jobs. International Labour Office.
  • 18. IRENA and ILO (2013). Renewable Energy and Jobs. International Renewable Energy Agency, International Labour Organization.
  • 19. IRENA and ILO (2021). Renewable Energy and Jobs - Annual Review 2021. Special edition: Labour and Policy Perspectives. International Renewable Energy Agency, International Labour Organization.
  • 20. Kaszyński, P., Malec, M., Moskwik, K., & Roszkowski, M. (2021). Analiza scenariuszowa bilansu podażowo-popytowego węgla kamiennego w Polsce do 2040 roku. Instytut Jagielloński.
  • 21. Khobai, H., Kolisi, N., Moyo, C., Anyikwa, Iz., & Dingela, S. (2020). Renewable Energy Consumption and Unemployment in South Africa. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 10(2), 170-178.
  • 22. Khodeir, A.N. (2016). The Relationship between the Generation of Electricity from Renewable Resources and Unemployment: An Empirical Study on the Egyptian Economy. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 11(1), 16-30.
  • 23. Lambert, R.L., & Silva, P.P. (2012). The challenges of determining the employment effects of renewable energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7), 4667-4674.
  • 24. Markandya, A., Inaki, A., González-Eguino, M., & Róman, M.V. (2016). Towards a green energy economy? Tracking the employment effects of low-carbon technologies in the European Union. Applied Energy, 179, 1342-1350.
  • 25. Meyer, I., & Sommer, M.W. (2014). Employment Effects of Renewable Energy Supply - A Meta Analysis. Austrian Institute of Economic Research - WIFO. Retrieved from on December 6, 2021.
  • 26. Ministerstwo Aktywów Państwowych (2019). Krajowy plan na rzecz energii i klimatu na lata 2021-2030. Retrieved from on December 17, 2021.
  • 27. Ministerstwo Gospodarki (2015). Projekt Polityki energetycznej Polski do 2050 roku - wersja 0.6. Retrieved from on December 27, 2021.
  • 28. Ministerstwo Klimatu i Środowiska (2019). Krajowy plan na rzecz energii i klimatu na lata 2021-2030, 20-29. Retrieved from on December 16, 2021.
  • 29. Moummy, C.El., Salmi, Y., & Baddih, H. (2021). The role of renewable energy sector in reducing unemployment: The Moroccan case. Modern Applied Science & Environmental Studies, 234, 1-6.
  • 30. Mu, Y., Cai, W., Evans, S., Wang, C., & Roland-Holst, D. (2018). Employment impacts of renewable energy policies in China: A decomposition analysis based on a CGE modelling framework. Applied Energy, 210, 256-267.
  • 31. Musa, K.S., & Maijama'a, R. (2020). Causal relationship between renewable energy consumption and unemployment in Nigeria: evidence from Toda and Yamamoto causality technique. Energy Economics Letters, 7(1), 46-60.
  • 32. O'Sullivan, M., & Edler, D. (2020). Gross Employment Effects in the Renewable Energy Industry in Germany-An Input-Output Analysis from 2000 to 2018. Sustainability, 12(15), 1-21.
  • 33. Pach-Gurgul, A., & Ulbrych, M. (2019). Progress of the V4 Countries towards the EU's Energy and Climate Targets in the Context of Energy Security Improvement. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 7(2),
  • 34. Pai, S., Emmerling, J., Drouet, L., Zerriffi, H., & Jewell, J. (2021). Meeting well-below 2°C target would increase energy sector jobs globally. One Earth, 4(7), 1026-1036.
  • 35. Parlament Europejski (2018). Dyrektywa Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady (UE) 2018/2001 z dnia 11 grudnia 2018 r. w sprawie promowania stosowania energii ze źródeł odnawialnych. Dziennik Urzędowy Unii Europejskiej L 328/82, 82-141. Retrieved from on December 16, 2021.
  • 36. Rafiq, S., Salim, R., & Sgro, P.M. (2018). Energy, Unemployment and Trade. Applied Economics, 50(47), 5122-5134.
  • 37. Ram, M., Osorio-Aravena, J.C., Aghahosseini, A., Bogdanov, D., & Breyer, Ch. (2021). Job creation during a climate compliant global energy transition across the power, heat, transport, and desalination sectors by 2050. Energy, 238, 1-11.
  • 38. REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report. Retrieved from on December 6, 2021.
  • 39. REN21 (2011). Renewables 2011 Global Status Report. Retrieved from on December 6, 2021.
  • 40. REN21 (2012). Renewables 2012 Global Status Report. Retrieved from on December 6, 2021.
  • 41. Statistics Poland. Statistical Yearbook of Industry - Poland (from 2010-2021). Retrieved from,5,14.html on 10 December, 2021.
  • 42. Statistics Poland. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland (from 2010-2019). Retrieved from,2,21.html on 10 December, 2021.
  • 43. EurObserv'ER (2019).The State of Renewable Energies in Europe - Edition 2011-2019. 11th EurObserv'ER Report. Retrieved from on December 8, 2021.
  • 44. Ulrich, Ph., Distelkamp, M., & Lehr, U. (2012). Employment Effects of Renewable Energy Expansion on a Regional Level - First Results of a Model-Based Approach for Germany. Sustainability, 4, 227-243.
  • 45. United Nations (2022). The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2022. Retrieved from on December 4, 2021.
  • 46. Van der Zwaan, B., Cameron, L., & Kober, T. (2013). Potential for renewable energy jobs in the Middle East. Energy Policy, 60, 296-304.
  • 47. Wei, M., Patadia, S., & Kammen, D.M. (2010). Putting renewables and energy efficiency to work: how many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?. Energy Policy, 38(2), 919-931.
  • 48. Yilanci, V., İslamoğlu, E., Yildirimalp, S., & Candan, G. (2020). The Relationship between Unemployment Rates and Renewable Energy Consumption: Evidence from Fourier ADL Cointegration Test. Alphanumeric Journal, 8(1), 17-28.
  • 49. Zarząd Województwa Warmińsko-Mazurskiego (2020). Warmińsko-Mazurskie 2030. Strategia rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczego. Retrieved from on December 16, 2021.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.