Quality Assurance Indicators for School Transformation: A Paradigm Shift
The new millennium is witnessing a lot of transformational challenges in almost all realms of life including the educational system, bringing about world class standards. Consequently, education reform has become necessary in pursuance of educational quality and effectiveness. Unfortunately most educational reforms in the past decades have resulted in serious frustration and failure even though they are often based on good will. This discourse will highlight the need for transformation in education in terms of Quality Assurance (QA) indicators for quality education that is currently experiencing three waves. The different waves are based on the different paradigms and theories of education quality and school effectiveness, and they result in different strategies and approaches to education quality assurance. The first wave of school transformation focuses mainly on Internal Quality Assurance Indicators and makes effort to improve internal school performances particularly the methods and processes of teaching and learning. The second wave emphasizes Interface Quality Assurance in terms of organizational effectiveness, stakeholders' satisfaction and market competitiveness and makes effort to ensure satisfaction and accountability to the internal and external stakeholders. This paper further explained that school transformation should move towards the third wave which emphasizes strongly Future Quality Assurance Indicators in terms of relevance to the new school functions in the new century, as well as relevance to the new paradigm shift in education concerning contextualized multiple intelligences (CMI), globalization, localization and individualization. Based on the paradigm shift, a new QA indicator in terms of value added and value created indicators which are completely different are added to the list. The enhancement of value added depends heavily on improvement of internal processes while value created relies mainly on the increase in goal relevance and stakeholder satisfaction with quality of education services. Continuous institutional development becomes necessary for total QA in the secondary school system and quality management of the new secondary school curriculum that emphasises entrepreneurship education. Consequently, transformation from the traditional ways of school management, to new creative and innovative approach, such as introduction of Tripartite Curriculum for inculcating multiple intelligences, instead of mono-intelligence that is currently prevalent in the Nigerian secondary school curriculum, is therefore advocated for. so that the current paradigm shift to a new secondary school curriculum in Nigerian will surely be a success.(original abstract)
- Albrow, M. (1990). Introducton, In M.Albrow & E. King(eds.), Globalization, knowledge and society. London: Sage.
- Alderfer, C. P. (1972). Existence, relatedness, and growth: Human needs in organizational setti New York: Free Press
- Beare, H., & Slaughter, R. (1993). Education for the twenty-first century. London: Routledge.
- Blackledge, D., & Hunt, B. (1985). Sociological interpretations of education. Sydney: Croom Helm.
- Bogan, C. E. & English, M.J. (1994). Benchmarking for best practices. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Bradley, L. H. (1993). Total quality management for schools. Lancaster, PA: Technomic.
- Bubb, S. (2001). Performance management: monitoring teaching in the primary school. UK: David Fulton Publishers.
- Burbules, N.C. & Torres, C.A. (Eds) (2000). Globalization and education: critical perspectives. New York: Routledge.
- Chapman, M., (2003). The Emotional intelligence pocket book. UK.: Management Pocketbooks Ltd. www.pocketbook.co.uk
- Cheng, Y.C. (1995a), Function and Effectiveness of Education, (3rd ed.), Hong Kong: Wide Angle Press.
- Cheng, Y.C. (1995b). School Educational Quality: Conceptualization, Monitoring, & Enhancement. In P.K. Siu & P. Tam (eds.), Quality in Education: Insights from Different Perspectives, (pp.123-147). Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Educational Research Association.
- Cheng, Y.C. (1996a). School Effectiveness and School-based Improvement: A Mechanism for Development. London, UK: Falmer Press. In H. Meng, Y. Zhou, & Y. Fang (eds.) School Based Indicators of Effectiveness: Experiences and Practices in APEC Members. (pp.197-206), China: Guangxi Normal University Press
- Cheng, Y.C. (1997b). A Framework of Indicators of Education Quality in Hong Kong Primary Schools: Development and Application. Eugene, OR: ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) (no. EA 028358). Clearinghouse on Educational Management. (USA). (In H. Meng, Y. Zhou, & Y. Fang (eds.) School Based Indicators of Effectiveness: Experiences and Practices in APEC Members. (pp.207-250), China: Guangxi Normal University Press.)
- Cheng Y.C., Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education and Development 1(1) (1998) 1- 16.
- Cheng, Y.C. (1999). Curriculum and Pedagogy in New Century: Globalization, Localization and Individualization for Multiple Intelligences. Keynote speech presented at the 5th UNESCO-ACEID International Conference "Reforming Learning, Curriculum and Pedagoy: Innovative Visions for the New Century", 13-16 December, 1999, Thailand
- Cheng, Y.C. (2000). Globalization, Localization and Individualization for Effective Education. Keynote speech presented at the 14th International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement " Global Networking for Quality Education", 4-8 January 2000, Hong Kong.
- Cheng Y.C. (a)., International Journal of Educational Management 14(4) (2000) 156- 174.
- Cheng, Y.C. (2000b). Educational Change and Development in Hong Kong: Effectiveness, Quality, and Relevance, In Townsend, T & Cheng, Y.C. (eds), Educational Change and Development in the Asia-Pacific Region: Challenges for the Future. (pp.17-56) The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger Publisher.
- Cheng, Y.C. (2001a). Educational Relevance, Quality and Effectiveness: Paradigm Shifts. Invited keynote speech presented at the International Congress for School Effectiveness and School Improvement held in 5-9 January 2001 in Toronto, Canada, with the theme "Equity, Globalization, and Change: Education for the 21st Century".
- Cheng, Y.C. (2001b). New Education and New Teacher Education: A Paradigm Shift for the Future. In Cheng, Y.C., Chow, K.W., & Tsui, K.T. (eds.). New Teacher Education for the Future: International Perspectives, (pp. 33-88). Hong Kong & The Netherlands: Hong Kong Institute of Education & Kluwer Academic Puhlishers
- Cheng, Y.C. (2001c). Towards the Third Wave of Education Reforms in Hong Kong. Keynote speech at the International Forum on Education Reforms in the Asia-Pacific Region, held in 14-16 February 2001, Hong Kong.
- Cheng, Y.C., Chow, K.W. & Tsui, K.T. (eds.) (2000). School Curriculum Change and Development in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Education. pp. 1-591.
- Cheng Y. C., Ng K. H., Primary Education 3(1) (1992) 55-64.
- Cheng Y.C., Tam W.M., Quality Assurance in Education 5(1) (1997) 22-31.
- Cheng, Y.C. & Townsend, T. (2000). Educational Change and Development in the Asia- Pacific Region: Trends and Issues, In Townsend, T & Cheng, Y.C. (eds), Educational Change and Development in the Asia-Pacific Region: Challenges for the Future. (pp. 317-344) The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger Publisher. Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, Chinese University of Hong Kong.
- Co-Intelligence Institute (2003). Handbook of intelligence studies, Ed. Loch K. Johnson: USA. Routledge
- Cuttance, P. (1994). Monitoring educational quality through performance indicators for school practice. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 5(2), 101-126.
- Daun H., Comapre 27(1) (1997) 19-41.
- Daun, H. (2001). Educational Restructuring in the Context of Globalization and National Policy. US: Routledge Falmer.
- Dempster, N. J., Sachs, G. Distant L. Logan, & C. Tom, (1993, January). Planning in primary schools: A national study in Australian schools. Paper presented at the International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement, Norrkoping, Sweden. Doubleday 19908; 80 Volume 42
- Fisher, D. C. (1994). Measuring up to the Baldrige. New York: American Management Association.
- Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces. London: Falmer Press.
- George, S. (1992). The Baldrige quality system. New York: Wiley.
- Greenwood, M.S. & Gaunt, H.J., (1994). Total quality management for schools. London: Cassell
- Hargreaves, D. H. &. Hopkins, D., (1991). The empowered school. UK: Cassell.
- Medley, D. M. (1982). Teacher effectiveness. In H. E. Mitzel et al. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of educational research (5th ed., pp. 1894-1903). New York: Free Press.
- Murgatroyd, S. & Morgan, C., (1993). Total quality management and the school. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
- National Examination Council (NECO) of Nigeria.
- Obanya, P., (2011). Educating for transformation. Keynote Address presented at the International Conference on Education at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka , 26-28 September 2011.
- Schmuck, R.A. & Runkel, P.J. (1985). The handbook of organization development in schools (3rd edition). Prospect Hights, IL: Waveland Press Inc
- Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. NY.
- Stromquist, N.P. & Monkman, K. (2000). Globalization and education: integration and contestation across cultures. Lanham, Md. Rowman & Littlefield.
- Tenner, A. R., & Detoro, I. J. (1992). Total quality management. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.