Ethics Perceptions of the U.S. and Its Large Developing-Country Trading Partners
There has been substantial applied research on business ethics focused primarily on measuring attitudes of various types of respondents towards such things as unethical business practices, ethics training, need for organizational codes of ethics, etc. In almost all cases, the respondents are asked about value systems in their own countries or in countries they are vary familiar with because they work or currently reside there. This study is different in that it asked American respondents to provide their perceptions of the extent of unethical behavior in countries with which they were not intimately familiar (except for the United States). The survey instrument presented eight different scenarios of unethical behavior and asked the respondents to indicate the percentage of the actors in each of the six countries (United States, Mexico, India, China, Italy and Germany) who would likely engage in unethical behavior described in each scenario. Results indicated significant differences in perceived levels of unethical behavior between countries. American actors portrayed in the scenarios were perceived to be most ethical while Mexican actors were seen as being the least ethical. The article discusses the results and some possible explanations for such differences in perceptions. (original abstract)
- Akaah, I. P., "Differences in Research Ethics Judgments between Male and Female Marketing Professionals," Journal of Business Ethics, 1989, 8, pp. 375-381.
- Baker, Raymond, John Christensen, and Nicholas Shaxson, "Catching up with Corruption," American Interest, September-October 2008, Vol. 4, Issue 1, 2008, pp. 65-72.
- Baumhart, R., "How Ethical are Businessmen?" Harvard Business Review, July-August 1961, pp. 6-19.
- Baumhart, R., An Honest Profit: What Businessmen Say about Ethics in Business, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968.
- Brenner, S. N. and E. A. Molander, "Is the Ethics of Business Changing?" Harvard Business Review, January-February 1977, pp. 57-71.
- Chandler, Bob, "Integrity Continuity," presentation to the Association of Contingency Planners, Los Angeles Chapter, 10 October 2006.
- Christie, P. Joseph Maria, Ik-Whan Kwon, Philipp A. Stoeberl, and Raymond Baumhart, "A Cross, Cultural Comparison of Ethical Attitudes of Business Managers: India, Korea and the United States," Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 46, Issue 3, September 2003, pp. 263-287.
- Chung, Kun Young, John W. Eichenseher, and Teruso Taniguchi, "Ethical Perceptions of Business Students: Differences between East Asia and the USA and among "Confucian" Cultures," Journal of Business Ethics, 79, 2008, pp. 121-132.
- Egels-Zandén, Niklas, "Suppliers' Compliance with MNCs' Codes of Conduct: Behind the Scenes at Chinese Toy Suppliers," Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 75, Issue 1, September 2007, pp. 45-62.
- Ergeneli, Azize, "A Cross-cultural Comparison of Ethical Behavior in Business Related Dilemmas: A Comparison among Turkish, Egyptian, Kirghiz and Kazak Marketing Employees," Problems & Perspectives in Management, 2005, Issue 2, pp. 135-147.
- Fieser, James, Ethics, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006, at www.iep.utm.edu/ (accessed on 30 December 2009).
- Forsyth, D. R., "Judging the Morality of Business Practices: The Influence of Personal Moral Philosophies," Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 11, May 1992, pp. 461-470.
- Fritzsche, D. J. and H. Becker, "Linking Management Behavior to Ethical Philosophy-An Empirical Investigation, Academy of Management Journal, 27, 1984, pp. 166-175.
- Hegarty, W. H. and H. P. Sims, "Some Determinants of Unethical Decision Behavior: An Experiment," Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 1978, pp. 451-457.
- Hegarty, W. H. and H. P. Sims, "Organizational Philosophy, Policies, and Objectives Related to Unethical Decision Behavior: A Laboratory Experiment," Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 1979, pp. 331-338.
- Hofstede, Geertz, "The Interaction Between National And Organizational Value Systems," Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 22, Issue 4, 1985, pp. 347-357.
- Hofstede, Geertz, Cultures and Organizations, New Ed., New York: HarperCollins, 1994.
- Hofstede, Geertz, "The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 14, Issue 2, Fall 1983, pp. 75-89.
- Hofstede, Geertz, Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations, 2nd Ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2003.
- Jamali, Dima, "Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Theory and Practice in a Developing Country Context," Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 72, Issue 3, May 2007, pp. 243-262.
- Jones, T. M., "Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model,"Academy of Management Review 16(2), 1991, pp. 366-395.
- Kirkman, Bradley L., Kevin B. Lowe, and Cristina B. Gibson, "A Quarter Century of Culture's Consequences: A Review of Empirical Research Incorporating Hofstede's Cultural Values Framework," Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 2006, pp. 285-320.
- Loe, Terry W., Linda Ferrell, and Phyllis Mansfield, "A Review of Empirical Studies Assessing Ethical Decision Making in Business," Journal of Business Ethics, 25, 2000, pp. 185-204.
- McCabe, D. L., J. M. Dukerich, and J. E. Dutton, "Values and Moral Dilemmas: A Cross-cultural Comparison," Business Ethics Quarterly, 3, 1993, pp. 117-130.
- Nwacbukwu, S. L. and J. H. Barnes, "The Effects of Culture on Ethical Decision Making - An Application of Hofstede's Typology," Journal of Business Ethics 12(10), 1993, pp. 753-760.
- Qyman, Rautwas, Y. A. Mohammed, and Zaid Swaidan, "Consumer Ethics: A Cross-cultural Study of the Ethical Beliefs of Turkish and American Consumers," Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 57, Issue 2, 2005, pp. 183-195.
- Ralston, David A., Jane Terpstra-Tong, Isabelle Maignan, Nancy K. Napier, and Van Thang Nguyen, "Vietnam: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Upward Influence Ethics," Journal of International Management, Vol. 12, Issue 1, March 2006, pp. 85-105.
- Rest, J. R., Moral Development: Advances in Research and Theory, New York: Praeger, 1986.
- Robertson, Christopher, Bradley Olson, K. Gilley, and Yongjian Bao, "Cross-cultural Comparison of Ethical Orientations and Willingness to Sacrifice Ethical Standards: China Versus Peru," Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 81, Issue 2, August 2008, pp. 413-425.
- Rottig, Daniel and Kenneth A. Heischmidt, "The Importance of Ethical Training for the Improvement of Ethical Decision-making: Evidence from Germany and the United States," Journal of Teaching in International Business, Vol. 18(4), 2007, pp.5-35.
- Scott, James C., "The Analysis of Corruption in Developing Nations," Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 11, No. 3, June 1969, pp. 315-341.
- Singh, Jatinder J., Scott J. Vitell, Jamal Al-Khatib, and Irvine Clark III, "The Role of Moral Intensity and Personal Moral Philosophies in the Ethical Decision Making of Marketers: A Cross-cultural Comparison of China and the United States," Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 15.
- Singhapakdi, A., S. J. Vitell, and K. L. Kraft, "Moral Intensity and Ethical Decision Making of Issue 2, June 2007, pp. 86-112. Marketing Professionals," Journal of Business Research, Vol. 36, July 1996, pp. 245-255.
- Su, Shu-Hui, "Cultural Differences in Determining the Ethical Perception and Decision-making of Future Accounting Professionals: A Comparison between Accounting Students from Taiwan and the United States," Journal of American Academy of Business, Vol. 9, Issue 1, 2006, pp. 147-158.
- Swaidan, Zaid and Linda A. Hayes, "Hofstede Theory and Cross Cultural Ethics Conceptualization, Review, and Research Agenda," The Journal of American Academy of Business, No. 2, March 2005, pp. 10-15.
- Transparency International, The 2007 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, at http://www.infoplease.com/world/statistics/2007-transparency-international-corruption-perceptions.html (accessed on 30 December 2009).
- Venard, Bertrand and Mohamed Hanafi, "Organizational Isomorphism and Corruption in Financial Institutions: Empirical Research in Emerging Countries," Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 81, Issue 2, April 2008, pp. 481-498.
- Weber, J., "Managers' Moral Reasoning: Assessing Their Responses to Three Moral Dilemmas," Human Relations, Vol. 43, Issue 7, 1990, pp. 687-702.
- Weber, James, "Scenarios in Business Ethics Research: Review, Critical Assessment, and Recommendations," Business Ethics Quarterly, Vol. 2, Issue 2, April 1992, pp. 137-160.
- Weeks, William A., Terry W. Loe, Lawrence B. Chonko, Carlos Ruy Martinez, and Kirk Wakefield, "Cognitive Moral Development and the Impact of Perceived Organizational Ethical Climate on the Search for Sales Force Excellence: A Cross-cultural Study," Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management,Vol. 26, No. 2, Spring 2006, pp. 205-217.
- White, L. P. and M. J. Rhodeback, "Ethical Dilemmas in Organization Development: A Cross-cultural Analysis," Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 1992, pp. 663-670.
- Zinkham, G. M., M. Bisesi, and M. J. Saxton, "MBAs' Changing Attitudes toward Marketing Dilemmas: 1981-1987," Journal of Business Ethics, 8, 1989, pp. 963-974.